DNA methylation is essential for normal development and is
associated with silencing large regions of DNA through processes such
as imprinting and X-chromosome inactivation. The majority of CpG
dinucleotides are methylated in mammals. Unmethylated CpGs occur
in segments called "CpG islands", which often lie upstream of
genes in the regulatory regions and impact transcription.
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Illingworth RS, Bird AP. CpG islands--'a rough guide'.
FEBS Lett. 2009 Jun 5;583(11):1713-20.
Caiafa P, Zampieri M. DNA methylation and
chromatin structure: the puzzling CpG islands. J Cell Biochem.
2005 Feb 1;94(2):257-65.
Latham T, Gilbert N, Ramsahoye B. DNA methylation in mouse embryonic stem
cells and development. Cell Tissue Res. 2008
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