Note: Updated Sep. 13, 2022
The aim of the GENCODE
Genes project (Harrow et al., 2006) is to produce a set of
highly accurate annotations of evidence-based gene features on the human reference genome.
This includes the identification of all protein-coding loci with associated
alternative splice variants, non-coding with transcript evidence in the public
databases (NCBI/EMBL/DDBJ) and pseudogenes. A high quality set of gene
structures is necessary for many research studies such as comparative or
evolutionary analyses, or for experimental design and interpretation of the
The GENCODE Genes tracks display the high-quality manual annotations merged
with evidence-based automated annotations across the entire
human genome. The GENCODE gene set presents a full merge
between HAVANA manual annotation and Ensembl automatic annotation.
Priority is given to the manually curated HAVANA annotation using predicted
Ensembl annotations when there are no corresponding manual annotations. With
each release, there is an increase in the number of annotations that have undergone
This annotation was carried out on the GRCm38 (mm10) genome assembly.
Experimental verification details are given in each descriptions for each
For more information on the different gene tracks, see our Genes FAQ.
These are multi-view composite tracks that contain differing data sets
(views). Instructions for configuring multi-view tracks are
Only some subtracks are shown by default. The user can select which subtracks
are displayed via the display controls on the track details pages.
Further details on display conventions and data interpretation are available in the track descriptions.
GENCODE version M31
corresponds to Ensembl 108.
GENCODE version M30
corresponds to Ensembl 107.
GENCODE version M29
corresponds to Ensembl 106.
GENCODE version M28
corresponds to Ensembl 105.
GENCODE version M27
corresponds to Ensembl 104.
GENCODE version M26
corresponds to Ensembl 103.
See also: The GENCODE Project Release History.
The GENCODE project is an international collaboration funded by NIH/NHGRI
grant U41HG007234. More information is available
Participating GENCODE institutions and personnel can be found
Frankish A, Diekhans M, Jungreis I, Lagarde J, Loveland JE, Mudge JM, Sisu C, Wright JC, Armstrong
J, Barnes I et al.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2021 Jan 8;49(D1):D916-D923.
A full list of GENCODE publications are available
at The GENCODE
Project web site.
Data Release Policy
GENCODE data are available for use without restrictions.