Note: lifted from hg18
This track displays Neandertal alleles for human-chimp protein-coding
differences on the human lineage using orangutan as the outgroup to
determine which allele is more likely to be ancestral.
Display Conventions and Configuration
Neandertal ancestral alleles are colored blue; derived
(human) alleles are colored green.
The item names show the number of Neandertal reads for the ancestral
and derived alleles, followed by the ancestral and derived codons enclosed in
For example, if no Neandertal reads matched the ancestral base G and
three Neandertal reads matched the derived base A, and the ancestral and
derived codons were GTA and ATA respectively, then the item name would
If N Neandertal reads match neither ancestral nor derived
base, then a "+N?" is added before the codons
Neandertal DNA was extracted from a ~49,000-year-old bone
(Sidrón 1253), which was excavated in El Sidrón cave,
Asturias, Spain. Non-synonymous changes that occurred on the human
lineage since the ancestral split with chimpanzee were identified by
aligning human, chimpanzee and orangutan protein sequences for all
orthologous proteins in
(Build 58) . Comparison of these three species allowed the assignment
of human/chimpanzee differences to their respective evolutionary
lineages. An Agilent custom oligonucleotide array covering the 13,841
non-synonymous changes inferred to have occurred in the human lineage
was designed and used to capture Neandertal sequences.
Burbano HA, Hodges E, Green RE, Briggs AW, Krause J, Meyer M, Good JM, Maricic T, Johnson PL, Xuan Z
Targeted investigation of the Neandertal genome by array-based sequence capture.
Science. 2010 May 7;328(5979):723-5.
PMID: 20448179; PMC: PMC3140021