The SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, which binds the virus to host cells, is a key target of vaccine
development to combat COVID-19, and mutations in this protein have potential to change infectivity
and response to disease treatments as well as vaccine efficacy.
As of February 2021 more than a dozen mutations in this protein have been detected via sequencing
worldwide, and specific mutations have been identified to be associated with
viruses that are significantly more transmissible.
This track presents amino acid mutations identified in the SARS-CoV2 Spike protein, based on the community annotation at
supplemented by the
Variants of SARS-CoV-2 Wikipedia page.
Mutations in this track (with nicknames): H69-, D80Y, S98F, A222V, N439K (Nick), L452R, Y453F, S477N, E484 (Eeek), N501 (Nelly), D614G (Doug), A626S, P681H (Pooh), A701B, V1122
Information provided for each mutation, if available, includes:
- Date first sequenced
- Notes of clinical significance
- Notes regarding geographic incidence
- Link to charts and tables presenting geographic distribution
- Link to Nextstrain build
- Links to relevant publications
The track items are colored as follows:
|Red||Identified as strong antibody escape by Bloom Lab RBD-mutation screen|
|Purple||ACE2 receptor binding region (RBD)|
The mutation name, e.g. N501 as well as alternative identifiers (e.g. N501Y, 501Y) or nickname
if present, can be typed in to the browser position box to navigate the browser to the mutation
position and highlight the mutation in the browser window.
This track was updated to include the L453R mutation in the B.1.429 variant (first
identified in California), as displayed in the
Variants of Concern
The color scheme was also changed in this track update.
The raw data can be explored interactively with the Table Browser, or Data Integrator.
For automated analysis, the genome annotation can be downloaded from the
Data files for earlier versions of this track can be downloaded from our
archive download server.
Please refer to our mailing list archives
for questions, or our Data Access FAQ for more information.
Thanks to Emma B. Hodcroft, Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, Switzerland
for leading and maintaining the community annotation resource on which this track is largely based.
CoVariants: SARS-CoV-2 Mutations and Variants of Interest
Emma B. Hodcroft, Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland
Variants of SARS-CoV-2, Wikipedia