Human Gene MRPS21 (uc001euk.3) Description and Page Index
  Description: Homo sapiens mitochondrial ribosomal protein S21 (MRPS21), nuclear gene encoding mitochondrial protein, transcript variant 1, mRNA.
RefSeq Summary (NM_031901): Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 28S subunit protein that belongs to the ribosomal protein S21P family. Pseudogenes corresponding to this gene are found on chromosomes 1p, 1q, 9p, 10p, 10q, 16q, and 17q. Available sequence data analyses identified splice variants that differ in the 5' UTR; both transcripts encode the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008].
Transcript (Including UTRs)
   Position: hg19 chr1:150,266,269-150,280,819 Size: 14,551 Total Exon Count: 3 Strand: +
Coding Region
   Position: hg19 chr1:150,266,787-150,280,662 Size: 13,876 Coding Exon Count: 2 

Page IndexSequence and LinksUniProtKB CommentsGenetic AssociationsCTDGene Alleles
Microarray ExpressionRNA StructureProtein StructureOther SpeciesGO AnnotationsmRNA Descriptions
PathwaysOther NamesModel InformationMethods
Data last updated: 2013-06-14

-  Sequence and Links to Tools and Databases
Genomic Sequence (chr1:150,266,269-150,280,819)mRNA (may differ from genome)Protein (87 aa)
Gene SorterGenome BrowserOther Species FASTAVisiGeneGene interactionsTable Schema
BioGPSCGAPEnsemblEntrez GeneExonPrimerGeneCards
neXtProtOMIMPubMedReactomeStanford SOURCETreefam

-  Comments and Description Text from UniProtKB
DESCRIPTION: RecName: Full=28S ribosomal protein S21, mitochondrial; Short=MRP-S21; Short=S21mt;
SUBUNIT: Component of the mitochondrial ribosome small subunit (28S) which comprises a 12S rRNA and about 30 distinct proteins.
SIMILARITY: Belongs to the ribosomal protein S21P family.
SEQUENCE CAUTION: Sequence=AAG14953.1; Type=Erroneous initiation;

-  Genetic Association Studies of Complex Diseases and Disorders
  Genetic Association Database (archive): MRPS21
CDC HuGE Published Literature: MRPS21

-  Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD)
  The following chemicals interact with this gene

+  Common Gene Haplotype Alleles
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+  Microarray Expression Data
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-  mRNA Secondary Structure of 3' and 5' UTRs
RegionFold EnergyBasesEnergy/Base
Display As
5' UTR -19.6082-0.239 Picture PostScript Text
3' UTR -24.40157-0.155 Picture PostScript Text

The RNAfold program from the Vienna RNA Package is used to perform the secondary structure predictions and folding calculations. The estimated folding energy is in kcal/mol. The more negative the energy, the more secondary structure the RNA is likely to have.

-  Protein Domain and Structure Information
  InterPro Domains: Graphical view of domain structure
IPR001911 - Ribosomal_S21

Pfam Domains:
PF01165 - Ribosomal protein S21

ModBase Predicted Comparative 3D Structure on P82921
The pictures above may be empty if there is no ModBase structure for the protein. The ModBase structure frequently covers just a fragment of the protein. You may be asked to log onto ModBase the first time you click on the pictures. It is simplest after logging in to just click on the picture again to get to the specific info on that model.

-  Orthologous Genes in Other Species
  Orthologies between human, mouse, and rat are computed by taking the best BLASTP hit, and filtering out non-syntenic hits. For more distant species reciprocal-best BLASTP hits are used. Note that the absence of an ortholog in the table below may reflect incomplete annotations in the other species rather than a true absence of the orthologous gene.
MouseRatZebrafishD. melanogasterC. elegansS. cerevisiae
No orthologGenome BrowserNo orthologNo orthologNo orthologNo ortholog
Gene DetailsGene Details    
Gene SorterGene Sorter    
 Protein Sequence    

-  Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations with Structured Vocabulary
  Molecular Function:
GO:0003723 RNA binding
GO:0003735 structural constituent of ribosome

Biological Process:
GO:0006412 translation
GO:0032543 mitochondrial translation
GO:0070125 mitochondrial translational elongation
GO:0070126 mitochondrial translational termination

Cellular Component:
GO:0005739 mitochondrion
GO:0005743 mitochondrial inner membrane
GO:0005763 mitochondrial small ribosomal subunit
GO:0005840 ribosome

-  Descriptions from all associated GenBank mRNAs
  AK289467 - Homo sapiens cDNA FLJ76504 complete cds, highly similar to Homo sapiens mitochondrial ribosomal protein S21 (MRPS21), nuclear gene encoding mitochondrial protein, transcript variant 2, mRNA.
AB049955 - Homo sapiens MRPS21 mRNA for mitochondrial ribosomal protein S21, complete cds.
BC004566 - Homo sapiens mitochondrial ribosomal protein S21, mRNA (cDNA clone MGC:14148 IMAGE:3633098), complete cds.
BC006554 - Homo sapiens mitochondrial ribosomal protein S21, mRNA (cDNA clone MGC:2680 IMAGE:2819715), complete cds.
U79258 - Human clone 23732 mRNA, partial cds.
JD403653 - Sequence 384677 from Patent EP1572962.
AF182417 - Homo sapiens MDS016 (MDS016) mRNA, complete cds.
KJ894023 - Synthetic construct Homo sapiens clone ccsbBroadEn_03417 MRPS21 gene, encodes complete protein.
AK058101 - Homo sapiens cDNA FLJ25372 fis, clone TST01887.
JD404306 - Sequence 385330 from Patent EP1572962.
JD385511 - Sequence 366535 from Patent EP1572962.
JD049961 - Sequence 30985 from Patent EP1572962.
JD320480 - Sequence 301504 from Patent EP1572962.

-  Biochemical and Signaling Pathways
  Reactome (by CSHL, EBI, and GO)

Protein P82921 (Reactome details) participates in the following event(s):

R-HSA-5368279 MTIF3 binds 28S ribosomal subunit
R-HSA-5419273 Hydrolysis of GTP and dissociation of 28S and 39S subunits
R-HSA-5389849 28S subunit:MTIF3 binds MTIF2:GTP, mRNA, and formylMet-tRNA
R-HSA-5389839 39S subunit binds 28S subunit:mRNA:fMet-tRNA
R-HSA-5389848 TUFM:GTP:aminoacyl-tRNA binds 55S ribosome:mRNA:fMet-tRNA
R-HSA-5389857 Peptide transfer from P-site to A-site (peptide bond formation)
R-HSA-5389842 TUFM hydrolyzes GTP and TUFM:GDP dissociates from 55S ribosome
R-HSA-5419261 55S ribosome with peptidyl-tRNA in A site binds GFM1:GTP
R-HSA-5419281 MRRF binds 55S ribosome:mRNA:tRNA
R-HSA-5419279 Translocation of peptidyl-tRNA from A-site to P-site (and translocation of 55S ribosome by 3 bases along mRNA)
R-HSA-5419264 MTRF1L (MTRF1a) or ICT1 binds stop codon in 55S ribosome:mRNA:peptidyl-tRNA
R-HSA-5419277 GFM2:GTP binds 55S ribosome:mRNA:tRNA:MRRF releasing mRNA and tRNA
R-HSA-5368286 Mitochondrial translation initiation
R-HSA-5419276 Mitochondrial translation termination
R-HSA-5368287 Mitochondrial translation
R-HSA-5389840 Mitochondrial translation elongation
R-HSA-72766 Translation
R-HSA-392499 Metabolism of proteins

-  Other Names for This Gene
  Alternate Gene Symbols: MDS016, NM_031901, NP_114107, P82921, Q5TB11, Q9BST6, RPMS21, RT21_HUMAN
UCSC ID: uc001euk.3
RefSeq Accession: NM_031901
Protein: P82921 (aka RT21_HUMAN)

-  Gene Model Information
category: coding nonsense-mediated-decay: no RNA accession: NM_031901.4
exon count: 3CDS single in 3' UTR: no RNA size: 509
ORF size: 264CDS single in intron: no Alignment % ID: 100.00
txCdsPredict score: 728.00frame shift in genome: no % Coverage: 98.82
has start codon: yes stop codon in genome: no # of Alignments: 1
has end codon: yes retained intron: no # AT/AC introns 0
selenocysteine: no end bleed into intron: 0# strange splices: 0
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-  Methods, Credits, and Use Restrictions
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