Human Gene CRTC2 (uc021pab.1) Description and Page Index
Description: Homo sapiens CREB regulated transcription coactivator 2 (CRTC2), mRNA. RefSeq Summary (NM_181715): This gene encodes a member of the transducers of regulated cAMP response element-binding protein activity family of transcription coactivators. These proteins promote the transcription of genes targeted by the cAMP response element-binding protein, and therefore play an important role in many cellular processes. Under basal conditions the encoded protein is phosphorylated by AMP-activated protein kinase or the salt-inducible kinases and is sequestered in the cytoplasm. Upon activation by elevated cAMP or calcium, the encoded protein translocates to the nucleus and increases target gene expression. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in this gene may increase the risk of type 2 diabetes. A pseudogene of this gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 5. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]. Publication Note: This RefSeq record includes a subset of the publications that are available for this gene. Please see the Gene record to access additional publications. ##Evidence-Data-START## Transcript exon combination :: BC053562.1, SRR1803611.28709.1 [ECO:0000332] RNAseq introns :: mixed/partial sample support SAMEA1965299, SAMEA1966682 [ECO:0000350] ##Evidence-Data-END## ##RefSeq-Attributes-START## MANE Ensembl match :: ENST00000368633.2/ ENSP00000357622.1 RefSeq Select criteria :: based on conservation, expression ##RefSeq-Attributes-END## Transcript (Including UTRs) Position: hg19 chr1:153,920,148-153,931,132 Size: 10,985 Total Exon Count: 14 Strand: - Coding Region Position: hg19 chr1:153,920,585-153,930,973 Size: 10,389 Coding Exon Count: 14
ID:CRTC2_HUMAN DESCRIPTION: RecName: Full=CREB-regulated transcription coactivator 2; AltName: Full=Transducer of regulated cAMP response element-binding protein 2; Short=TORC-2; Short=Transducer of CREB protein 2; FUNCTION: Transcriptional coactivator for CREB1 which activates transcription through both consensus and variant cAMP response element (CRE) sites. Acts as a coactivator, in the SIK/TORC signaling pathway, being active when dephosphorylated and acts independently of CREB1 'Ser-133' phosphorylation. Enhances the interaction of CREB1 with TAF4. Regulates gluconeogenesis as a component of the LKB1/AMPK/TORC2 signaling pathway. Regulates the expression of specific genes such as the steroidogenic gene, StAR. Potent coactivator of PPARGC1A and inducer of mitochondrial biogenesis in muscle cells. Also coactivator for TAX activation of the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) long terminal repeats (LTR). SUBUNIT: Binds, as a tetramer, through its N-terminal region, with the bZIP domain of CREB1. 'Arg-314' in the bZIP domain of CREB1 is essential for this interaction. Interaction, via its C-terminal, with TAF4, enhances recruitment of TAF4 to CREB1 (By similarity). Interacts with PPP3CA/calcineurin alpha, SIK2 and 14-3-3 proteins, YWHAB and YWHAG. Interaction with the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax protein is essential for optimal transcription activation by Tax. Interaction with RFWD2/COP1 mediates nuclear export and degradation of CRTC2 (By similarity). INTERACTION: P57059:SIK1; NbExp=1; IntAct=EBI-1181987, EBI-1181640; Q9Y2K2:SIK3; NbExp=1; IntAct=EBI-1181987, EBI-1181460; SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Note=Translocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm on interaction of the phosphorylated form with 14-3-3 protein. In response to cAMP levels and glucagon, relocated to the nucleus. TISSUE SPECIFICITY: Most abundantly expressed in the thymus. Present in both B and T-lymphocytes. Highly expressed in HEK293T cells and in insulinomas. High levels also in spleen, ovary, muscle and lung, with highest levels in muscle. Lower levels found in brain, colon, heart, kidney, prostate, small intestine and stomach. Weak expression in liver and pancreas. PTM: Phosphorylation/dephosphorylation states of Ser-171 are required for regulating transduction of CREB activity. TORCs are inactive when phosphorylated, and active when dephosphorylated at this site. This primary site of phosphorylation, is regulated by cAMP and calcium levels and is dependent on the phosphorylation of SIKs (SIK1 and SIK2) by LKB1. Both insulin and AMPK increase this phosphorylation of CRTC2 while glucagon suppresses it. Phosphorylation at Ser-274 by MARK2 is induced under low glucose conditions and dephosphorylated in response to glucose influx. Phosphorylation at Ser-274 promotes interaction with 14-3-3 proteins and translocation to the cytoplasm. POLYMORPHISM: Variant Cys-379, under a dominant model, linked to a recessive mutation in LKB1, may be associated with susceptibility to type II or non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). SIMILARITY: Belongs to the TORC family.
Genetic Association Studies of Complex Diseases and Disorders
Genetic Association Database (archive): CRTC2 CDC HuGE Published Literature: CRTC2
The RNAfold program from the Vienna RNA Package is used to perform the secondary structure predictions and folding calculations. The estimated folding energy is in kcal/mol. The more negative the energy, the more secondary structure the RNA is likely to have.
Pfam Domains: PF12884 - Transducer of regulated CREB activity, N terminus PF12885 - Transducer of regulated CREB activity middle domain PF12886 - Transducer of regulated CREB activity, C terminus
ModBase Predicted Comparative 3D Structure on Q53ET0
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Orthologous Genes in Other Species
Orthologies between human, mouse, and rat are computed by taking the best BLASTP hit, and filtering out non-syntenic hits. For more distant species reciprocal-best BLASTP hits are used. Note that the absence of an ortholog in the table below may reflect incomplete annotations in the other species rather than a true absence of the orthologous gene.