Human Gene AXIN1 (uc002cgp.2) Description and Page Index
  Description: Homo sapiens axin 1 (AXIN1), transcript variant 1, mRNA.
RefSeq Summary (NM_003502): This gene encodes a cytoplasmic protein which contains a regulation of G-protein signaling (RGS) domain and a dishevelled and axin (DIX) domain. The encoded protein interacts with adenomatosis polyposis coli, catenin beta-1, glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta, protein phosphate 2, and itself. This protein functions as a negative regulator of the wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 1 (WNT) signaling pathway and can induce apoptosis. The crystal structure of a portion of this protein, alone and in a complex with other proteins, has been resolved. Mutations in this gene have been associated with hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatoblastomas, ovarian endometriod adenocarcinomas, and medullablastomas. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2016].
Transcript (Including UTRs)
   Position: hg19 chr16:337,440-402,676 Size: 65,237 Total Exon Count: 11 Strand: -
Coding Region
   Position: hg19 chr16:338,122-397,025 Size: 58,904 Coding Exon Count: 10 

Page IndexSequence and LinksUniProtKB CommentsGenetic AssociationsMalaCardsCTD
Gene AllelesRNA-Seq ExpressionMicroarray ExpressionRNA StructureProtein StructureOther Species
GO AnnotationsmRNA DescriptionsPathwaysOther NamesModel InformationMethods
Data last updated: 2013-06-14

-  Sequence and Links to Tools and Databases
Genomic Sequence (chr16:337,440-402,676)mRNA (may differ from genome)Protein (862 aa)
Gene SorterGenome BrowserOther Species FASTAVisiGeneGene interactionsTable Schema
BioGPSCGAPEnsemblEntrez GeneExonPrimerGeneCards
neXtProtOMIMPubMedReactomeStanford SOURCETreefam

-  Comments and Description Text from UniProtKB
DESCRIPTION: RecName: Full=Axin-1; AltName: Full=Axis inhibition protein 1; Short=hAxin;
FUNCTION: Component of the beta-catenin destruction complex required for regulating CTNNB1 levels through phosphorylation and ubiquitination, and modulating Wnt-signaling. Controls dorsoventral patterning via two opposing effects; down-regulates CTNNB1 to inhibit the Wnt signaling pathway and ventralize embryos, but also dorsalizes embryos by activating a Wnt- independent JNK signaling pathway. In Wnt signaling, probably facilitates the phosphorylation of CTNNB1 and APC by GSK3B. Likely to function as a tumor suppressor. Facilitates the phosphorylation of TP53 by HIPK2 upon ultraviolet irradiation. Enhances TGF-beta signaling by recruiting the RNF111 E3 ubiquitin ligase and promoting the degradation of inhibitory SMAD7. Also component of the AXIN1-HIPK2-TP53 complex which controls cell growth, apoptosis and development.
SUBUNIT: Homodimer (By similarity). Component of the beta-catenin destruction complex, containing at least, CTNNB1, an axin and GSK3B, that regulates CTNNB1 protein levels through phosphorylation and ubiquitination. Interacts with CTNNB1 (via the armadillo repeats 2-7). Interacts with GSK3B; the interaction hyperphosphorylates CTNNB1 leading to its ubiquitination and destruction. Component of the AXIN1-HIPK2-TP53 complex. Interacts directly in the complex with TP53 and HIPK2. Interacts with DAXX; the interaction stimulates the interaction of DAXX with TP53, stimulates 'Ser-46' phosphorylation of TP53 and induces cell death on UV irradiation. Also binds APC, SMAD6, SMAD7 and RNF111. Interacts with DIXDC1; prevents interaction with MAP3K1. Interacts with MAP3K4. Interacts with ANKRD6 and AIDA (By similarity). Interacts with MDFI; the interaction decreases AXIN1-mediated JUN N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation. Interacts with MDFIC; the interaction inhibits beta-cateninin-mediated signaling and AXIN1- mediated JUN N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation. Interacts with LRP5 (via its phosphorylated PPPSP motifs); the interaction is stimulated by WNT1 and GSK3B and activates beta-catenin signaling. Interacts (via the C-terminal) with PPP1CA; the interaction dephosphorylates AXIN1 and regulates interaction with GSK3B. Interacts with PPP2CA; the interaction dephosphorylates AXIN1. Interacts with MACF1 (By similarity). Found in a complex composed of MACF1, APC, AXIN1, CTNNB1 and GSK3B (By similarity). Interacts with TNKS. Interacts with DAB2; the interaction is mutually exclusive with the AXIN1:PPP1CA interaction.
INTERACTION: P39687:ANP32A; NbExp=2; IntAct=EBI-710484, EBI-359234; Q14194:CRMP1; NbExp=2; IntAct=EBI-710484, EBI-473101; P49674:CSNK1E; NbExp=4; IntAct=EBI-710484, EBI-749343; P35222:CTNNB1; NbExp=20; IntAct=EBI-710484, EBI-491549; Q02248:Ctnnb1 (xeno); NbExp=5; IntAct=EBI-710484, EBI-397872; Q9UKB1:FBXW11; NbExp=4; IntAct=EBI-710484, EBI-355189; P49841:GSK3B; NbExp=26; IntAct=EBI-710484, EBI-373586; Q9H2K2:TNKS2; NbExp=2; IntAct=EBI-710484, EBI-4398527; P04637:TP53; NbExp=4; IntAct=EBI-710484, EBI-366083; Q14134:TRIM29; NbExp=2; IntAct=EBI-710484, EBI-702370;
SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Cell membrane (By similarity). Note=MACF1 is required for its translocation to cell membrane (By similarity). On UV irradiation, translocates to the nucleus and colocalizes with DAAX.
TISSUE SPECIFICITY: Ubiquitously expressed.
DOMAIN: The tankyrase-binding motif (also named TBD) is required for interaction with tankyrase TNKS and TNKS2.
PTM: Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of AXIN1 regulates assembly and function of the beta-catenin complex. Phosphorylated by CK1 and GSK3B. Dephosphorylated by PPP1CA and PPP2CA. Phosphorylation by CK1 enhances binding of GSK3B to AXIN1.
PTM: ADP-ribosylated by tankyrase TNKS and TNKS2. Poly-ADP- ribosylated protein is recognized by RNF146, followed by ubiquitination at 'Lys-48' and subsequent activation of the Wnt signaling pathway.
PTM: Ubiquitinated by RNF146 when poly-ADP-ribosylated, leading to its degradation and subsequent activation of the Wnt signaling pathway. Sumoylation at Lys-857 and Lys-860 prevents ubiquitination and degradation. Sumoylation is required for AXIN1- mediated JNK activation. Deubiquitinated by USP34, deubiquitinated downstream of beta-catenin stabilization step: deubiquitination is important for nuclear accumulation during Wnt signaling to positively regulate beta-catenin (CTNBB1)-mediated transcription.
DISEASE: Defects in AXIN1 are involved in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) [MIM:114550].
DISEASE: Defects in AXIN1 are a cause of caudal duplication anomaly (CADUA) [MIM:607864]. Caudal duplication anomaly is characterized by the occurrence of duplications of different organs in the caudal region. Note=Caudal duplication anomaly is associated with hypermethylation of the AXIN1 promoter.
SIMILARITY: Contains 1 DIX domain.
SIMILARITY: Contains 1 RGS domain.
SEQUENCE CAUTION: Sequence=AAC51624.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally shortened;

-  Genetic Association Studies of Complex Diseases and Disorders
  Genetic Association Database (archive): AXIN1
CDC HuGE Published Literature: AXIN1
Positive Disease Associations: Parkinson Disease
Related Studies:
  1. Parkinson Disease
    , , . [PubMed 0]
  2. Parkinson Disease
    , , . [PubMed 0]

-  MalaCards Disease Associations
  MalaCards Gene Search: AXIN1
Diseases sorted by gene-association score: caudal duplication anomaly* (991), hepatocellular carcinoma* (896), adult hepatocellular carcinoma* (350), familial adenomatous polyposis (11), adenomatous polyposis coli (7), embryonal sarcoma (5), medulloblastoma (4), esophageal basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (4), colorectal cancer (4)
* = Manually curated disease association

-  Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD)
  The following chemicals interact with this gene
  • C006780 bisphenol A
  • D011374 Progesterone
  • C111118 2',3,3',4',5-pentachloro-4-hydroxybiphenyl
  • C404910 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane
  • C016403 2,4-dinitrotoluene
  • C053876 6-isopropoxy-9-oxoxanthene-2-carboxylic acid
  • D015123 7,8-Dihydro-7,8-dihydroxybenzo(a)pyrene 9,10-oxide
  • C046926 AH 23848
  • D000082 Acetaminophen
  • D000643 Ammonium Chloride
          more ... click here to view the complete list

+  Common Gene Haplotype Alleles
  Press "+" in the title bar above to open this section.

-  RNA-Seq Expression Data from GTEx (53 Tissues, 570 Donors)
  Highest median expression: 16.26 RPKM in Brain - Cerebellum
Total median expression: 512.68 RPKM

View in GTEx track of Genome Browser    View at GTEx portal     View GTEx Body Map

+  Microarray Expression Data
  Press "+" in the title bar above to open this section.

-  mRNA Secondary Structure of 3' and 5' UTRs
RegionFold EnergyBasesEnergy/Base
Display As
5' UTR -225.10389-0.579 Picture PostScript Text
3' UTR -284.71682-0.417 Picture PostScript Text

The RNAfold program from the Vienna RNA Package is used to perform the secondary structure predictions and folding calculations. The estimated folding energy is in kcal/mol. The more negative the energy, the more secondary structure the RNA is likely to have.

-  Protein Domain and Structure Information
  InterPro Domains: Graphical view of domain structure
IPR014936 - Axin_b-cat-bd
IPR001158 - DIX
IPR000342 - Regulat_G_prot_signal
IPR024066 - Regulat_G_prot_signal_dom1
IPR016137 - Regulat_G_prot_signal_superfam

Pfam Domains:
PF00615 - Regulator of G protein signaling domain
PF00778 - DIX domain
PF08833 - Axin beta-catenin binding domain
PF16646 - Axin-1 tankyrase binding domain

SCOP Domains:
48097 - Regulator of G-protein signaling, RGS

Protein Data Bank (PDB) 3-D Structure
MuPIT help

- X-ray MuPIT

- X-ray MuPIT

- X-ray MuPIT

ModBase Predicted Comparative 3D Structure on O15169
The pictures above may be empty if there is no ModBase structure for the protein. The ModBase structure frequently covers just a fragment of the protein. You may be asked to log onto ModBase the first time you click on the pictures. It is simplest after logging in to just click on the picture again to get to the specific info on that model.

-  Orthologous Genes in Other Species
  Orthologies between human, mouse, and rat are computed by taking the best BLASTP hit, and filtering out non-syntenic hits. For more distant species reciprocal-best BLASTP hits are used. Note that the absence of an ortholog in the table below may reflect incomplete annotations in the other species rather than a true absence of the orthologous gene.
MouseRatZebrafishD. melanogasterC. elegansS. cerevisiae
No orthologGenome BrowserNo orthologNo orthologNo orthologNo ortholog
Gene DetailsGene Details    
Gene SorterGene Sorter    
 Protein Sequence    

-  Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations with Structured Vocabulary
  Molecular Function:
GO:0005096 GTPase activator activity
GO:0005515 protein binding
GO:0008013 beta-catenin binding
GO:0019899 enzyme binding
GO:0019901 protein kinase binding
GO:0030159 receptor signaling complex scaffold activity
GO:0031625 ubiquitin protein ligase binding
GO:0032947 protein complex scaffold
GO:0035591 signaling adaptor activity
GO:0042802 identical protein binding
GO:0042803 protein homodimerization activity
GO:0046332 SMAD binding
GO:0070016 armadillo repeat domain binding
GO:0070411 I-SMAD binding

Biological Process:
GO:0001743 optic placode formation
GO:0001934 positive regulation of protein phosphorylation
GO:0006915 apoptotic process
GO:0007165 signal transduction
GO:0007257 activation of JUN kinase activity
GO:0007275 multicellular organism development
GO:0007368 determination of left/right symmetry
GO:0010800 positive regulation of peptidyl-threonine phosphorylation
GO:0016055 Wnt signaling pathway
GO:0021797 forebrain anterior/posterior pattern specification
GO:0021881 Wnt-activated signaling pathway involved in forebrain neuron fate commitment
GO:0030111 regulation of Wnt signaling pathway
GO:0030178 negative regulation of Wnt signaling pathway
GO:0030910 olfactory placode formation
GO:0031122 cytoplasmic microtubule organization
GO:0031398 positive regulation of protein ubiquitination
GO:0032147 activation of protein kinase activity
GO:0033138 positive regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation
GO:0033146 regulation of intracellular estrogen receptor signaling pathway
GO:0034244 negative regulation of transcription elongation from RNA polymerase II promoter
GO:0034622 cellular macromolecular complex assembly
GO:0043547 positive regulation of GTPase activity
GO:0045599 negative regulation of fat cell differentiation
GO:0045732 positive regulation of protein catabolic process
GO:0045893 positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated
GO:0046330 positive regulation of JNK cascade
GO:0048048 embryonic eye morphogenesis
GO:0048320 axial mesoderm formation
GO:0051443 positive regulation of ubiquitin-protein transferase activity
GO:0055001 muscle cell development
GO:0060070 canonical Wnt signaling pathway
GO:0060272 embryonic skeletal joint morphogenesis
GO:0060823 canonical Wnt signaling pathway involved in neural plate anterior/posterior pattern formation
GO:0090090 negative regulation of canonical Wnt signaling pathway
GO:0090263 positive regulation of canonical Wnt signaling pathway
GO:1904885 beta-catenin destruction complex assembly
GO:1904886 beta-catenin destruction complex disassembly
GO:2000060 positive regulation of protein ubiquitination involved in ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process

Cellular Component:
GO:0005634 nucleus
GO:0005737 cytoplasm
GO:0005829 cytosol
GO:0005886 plasma membrane
GO:0016020 membrane
GO:0016328 lateral plasma membrane
GO:0030877 beta-catenin destruction complex
GO:0031410 cytoplasmic vesicle
GO:0048471 perinuclear region of cytoplasm
GO:0071944 cell periphery

-  Descriptions from all associated GenBank mRNAs
  AB208876 - Homo sapiens mRNA for axin 1 isoform a variant protein.
BC035872 - Homo sapiens, clone IMAGE:5309734, mRNA.
KF615850 - Homo sapiens clone WBr-AK2013F1 axin-1 variant-like (AXIN1) mRNA, complete sequence, alternatively spliced.
KF615851 - Homo sapiens clone WBr-AK2013F2 axin-1 variant-like (AXIN1) mRNA, complete sequence, alternatively spliced.
KF615852 - Homo sapiens clone WBr-AK2013F3 axin-1 variant-like (AXIN1) mRNA, complete sequence, alternatively spliced.
KF615847 - Homo sapiens clone WBr-AK2013A1 axin-1 variant-like (AXIN1) mRNA, complete sequence, alternatively spliced.
KF615848 - Homo sapiens clone WBr-AK2013A2 axin-1 variant-like (AXIN1) mRNA, complete sequence, alternatively spliced.
KF615849 - Homo sapiens clone WBr-AK2013A3 axin-1 variant-like (AXIN1) mRNA, complete sequence, alternatively spliced.
KF615853 - Homo sapiens clone WBr-AK2013A4 axin-1 variant-like (AXIN1) mRNA, complete sequence, alternatively spliced.
KF615854 - Homo sapiens clone WBr-AK2013A5 axin-1 variant-like (AXIN1) mRNA, complete sequence, alternatively spliced.
AF009674 - Homo sapiens axin (AXIN) mRNA, partial cds.
BC044648 - Homo sapiens axin 1, mRNA (cDNA clone MGC:52315 IMAGE:5809104), complete cds.
KU178413 - Homo sapiens axin 1 isoform 1 (AXIN1) mRNA, partial cds.
KU178414 - Homo sapiens axin 1 isoform 2 (AXIN1) mRNA, partial cds.
KU178415 - Homo sapiens axin 1 isoform 3 (AXIN1) mRNA, partial cds, alternatively spliced.
BC017447 - Homo sapiens, clone IMAGE:3506533, mRNA, partial cds.
BX648449 - Homo sapiens mRNA; cDNA DKFZp686J15273 (from clone DKFZp686J15273).
JD383178 - Sequence 364202 from Patent EP1572962.
JD162324 - Sequence 143348 from Patent EP1572962.
JD155714 - Sequence 136738 from Patent EP1572962.
JD367549 - Sequence 348573 from Patent EP1572962.
JD452077 - Sequence 433101 from Patent EP1572962.
JD050543 - Sequence 31567 from Patent EP1572962.
JD201897 - Sequence 182921 from Patent EP1572962.
JD537556 - Sequence 518580 from Patent EP1572962.
JD258602 - Sequence 239626 from Patent EP1572962.
JD058422 - Sequence 39446 from Patent EP1572962.
JD547469 - Sequence 528493 from Patent EP1572962.
JD255116 - Sequence 236140 from Patent EP1572962.
JD209478 - Sequence 190502 from Patent EP1572962.
JD532879 - Sequence 513903 from Patent EP1572962.
JD126983 - Sequence 108007 from Patent EP1572962.
JD473778 - Sequence 454802 from Patent EP1572962.
JD178742 - Sequence 159766 from Patent EP1572962.
JD384632 - Sequence 365656 from Patent EP1572962.
JD143122 - Sequence 124146 from Patent EP1572962.
JD451409 - Sequence 432433 from Patent EP1572962.
JD099873 - Sequence 80897 from Patent EP1572962.
JD389969 - Sequence 370993 from Patent EP1572962.
JD129242 - Sequence 110266 from Patent EP1572962.

-  Biochemical and Signaling Pathways
  KEGG - Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes
hsa04310 - Wnt signaling pathway
hsa05200 - Pathways in cancer
hsa05210 - Colorectal cancer
hsa05213 - Endometrial cancer
hsa05217 - Basal cell carcinoma

BioCarta from NCI Cancer Genome Anatomy Project
h_alkPathway - ALK in cardiac myocytes
h_ps1Pathway - Presenilin action in Notch and Wnt signaling
h_gsk3Pathway - Inactivation of Gsk3 by AKT causes accumulation of b-catenin in Alveolar Macrophages
h_wntPathway - WNT Signaling Pathway
h_pitx2Pathway - Multi-step Regulation of Transcription by Pitx2

Reactome (by CSHL, EBI, and GO)

Protein O15169 (Reactome details) participates in the following event(s):

R-HSA-195251 Assembly of the destruction complex
R-HSA-5229343 AXIN is phosphorylated in the destruction complex
R-HSA-1504186 DVL recruits GSK3beta:AXIN1 to the receptor complex
R-HSA-201685 Beta-catenin is released from the destruction complex
R-HSA-3640862 Tankyrase binds AXIN
R-HSA-4641134 SMURF2 binds AXIN
R-HSA-195280 Dissociation of beta-catenin from Axin and association of beta catenin with phospho-(20 aa) APC in the detruction complex
R-HSA-195275 Phosphorylation of APC component of the destruction complex
R-HSA-2130279 Association of beta-catenin with the RBX1:SCF(beta-TrCP1) ubiquitin ligase complex
R-HSA-195304 Association of beta-catenin with the destruction complex
R-HSA-201691 Phosphorylation of LRP5/6 cytoplasmic domain by CSNKI
R-NUL-1458902 frog CK1gamma phosphorylates LRP5/6
R-HSA-201677 Phosphorylation of LRP5/6 cytoplasmic domain by membrane-associated GSK3beta
R-HSA-3640858 Tankyrase ADP-ribosylates AXIN
R-HSA-4641129 AXIN is ubiquitinated by SMURF2
R-HSA-2130286 Multi-ubiquitination of phospho-beta-catenin by RBX1:SCF(beta-TrCP1)
R-HSA-195287 Phosphorylation of phospho-(Ser45 ) at Thr 41 by GSK-3
R-HSA-195318 Phosphorylation of beta-catenin at Ser45 by CK1 alpha
R-HSA-195300 Phosphorylation of phospho-(Ser45,Thr41,Ser37) at Ser33 by GSK-3
R-HSA-195283 Phosphorylation of phospho- (Ser45, Thr41) beta-catenin at Ser37 by GSK-3
R-HSA-3640844 RNF146 binds RibC-AXIN:TNKS complex
R-HSA-3640872 USP34 deubiquitinates AXIN1,AXIN2
R-HSA-3640861 RNF146 ubiquitinates ADP-ribosylated AXIN
R-HSA-195253 Degradation of beta-catenin by the destruction complex
R-HSA-5467337 APC truncation mutants have impaired AXIN binding
R-HSA-5467348 Truncations of AMER1 destabilize the destruction complex
R-HSA-8931987 RUNX1 regulates estrogen receptor mediated transcription
R-HSA-8939256 RUNX1 regulates transcription of genes involved in WNT signaling
R-HSA-9018519 Estrogen-dependent gene expression
R-HSA-4641262 Disassembly of the destruction complex and recruitment of AXIN to the membrane
R-HSA-4641257 Degradation of AXIN
R-HSA-195721 Signaling by WNT
R-HSA-4839744 truncated APC mutants destabilize the destruction complex
R-HSA-4839748 AMER1 mutants destabilize the destruction complex
R-HSA-8878171 Transcriptional regulation by RUNX1
R-HSA-8939211 ESR-mediated signaling
R-HSA-5467340 AXIN missense mutants destabilize the destruction complex
R-HSA-5358751 S45 mutants of beta-catenin aren't phosphorylated
R-HSA-5358752 T41 mutants of beta-catenin aren't phosphorylated
R-HSA-5358749 S37 mutants of beta-catenin aren't phosphorylated
R-HSA-5358747 S33 mutants of beta-catenin aren't phosphorylated
R-HSA-201681 TCF dependent signaling in response to WNT
R-HSA-162582 Signal Transduction
R-HSA-4791275 Signaling by WNT in cancer
R-HSA-212436 Generic Transcription Pathway
R-HSA-9006931 Signaling by Nuclear Receptors
R-HSA-196299 Beta-catenin phosphorylation cascade
R-HSA-5339716 Misspliced GSK3beta mutants stabilize beta-catenin
R-HSA-5689880 Ub-specific processing proteases
R-HSA-4839735 AXIN mutants destabilize the destruction complex, activating WNT signaling
R-HSA-4839743 phosphorylation site mutants of CTNNB1 are not targeted to the proteasome by the destruction complex
R-HSA-5663202 Diseases of signal transduction
R-HSA-73857 RNA Polymerase II Transcription
R-HSA-5688426 Deubiquitination
R-HSA-1643685 Disease
R-HSA-74160 Gene expression (Transcription)
R-HSA-597592 Post-translational protein modification
R-HSA-392499 Metabolism of proteins

-  Other Names for This Gene
  Alternate Gene Symbols: AXIN, AXIN1_HUMAN, NM_003502, NP_003493, O15169, Q4TT26, Q4TT27, Q86YA7, Q8WVW6, Q96S28
UCSC ID: uc002cgp.2
RefSeq Accession: NM_003502
Protein: O15169 (aka AXIN1_HUMAN)
CCDS: CCDS10405.1, CCDS10406.1

-  Gene Model Information
category: coding nonsense-mediated-decay: no RNA accession: NM_003502.3
exon count: 11CDS single in 3' UTR: no RNA size: 3675
ORF size: 2589CDS single in intron: no Alignment % ID: 100.00
txCdsPredict score: 5325.00frame shift in genome: no % Coverage: 99.59
has start codon: yes stop codon in genome: no # of Alignments: 1
has end codon: yes retained intron: no # AT/AC introns 0
selenocysteine: no end bleed into intron: 0# strange splices: 0
Click here for a detailed description of the fields of the table above.

-  Methods, Credits, and Use Restrictions
  Click here for details on how this gene model was made and data restrictions if any.