Human Gene HIST2H4A (uc001ess.3) Description and Page Index
Description: Homo sapiens histone cluster 2, H4a (HIST2H4A), mRNA. RefSeq Summary (NM_003548): Histones are basic nuclear proteins that are responsible for the nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. This structure consists of approximately 146 bp of DNA wrapped around a nucleosome, an octamer composed of pairs of each of the four core histones (H2A, H2B, H3, and H4). The chromatin fiber is further compacted through the interaction of a linker histone, H1, with the DNA between the nucleosomes to form higher order chromatin structures. This gene is intronless and encodes a replication-dependent histone that is a member of the histone H4 family. Transcripts from this gene lack polyA tails; instead, they contain a palindromic termination element. This gene is found in a histone cluster on chromosome 1. This gene is one of four histone genes in the cluster that are duplicated; this record represents the centromeric copy. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2015]. Publication Note: This RefSeq record includes a subset of the publications that are available for this gene. Please see the Gene record to access additional publications. ##Evidence-Data-START## Transcript is intronless :: HY098221.1 [ECO:0000345] ##Evidence-Data-END## ##RefSeq-Attributes-START## RefSeq Select criteria :: based on single protein-coding transcript replication-dependent histone :: PMID: 12408966 ##RefSeq-Attributes-END## Transcript (Including UTRs) Position: hg19 chr1:149,804,221-149,804,616 Size: 396 Total Exon Count: 1 Strand: + Coding Region Position: hg19 chr1:149,804,249-149,804,560 Size: 312 Coding Exon Count: 1
ID:H4_HUMAN DESCRIPTION: RecName: Full=Histone H4; FUNCTION: Core component of nucleosome. Nucleosomes wrap and compact DNA into chromatin, limiting DNA accessibility to the cellular machineries which require DNA as a template. Histones thereby play a central role in transcription regulation, DNA repair, DNA replication and chromosomal stability. DNA accessibility is regulated via a complex set of post-translational modifications of histones, also called histone code, and nucleosome remodeling. SUBUNIT: The nucleosome is a histone octamer containing two molecules each of H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 assembled in one H3-H4 heterotetramer and two H2A-H2B heterodimers. The octamer wraps approximately 147 bp of DNA. INTERACTION: Q12830:BPTF; NbExp=3; IntAct=EBI-302023, EBI-1560273; Q12830-4:BPTF; NbExp=16; IntAct=EBI-302023, EBI-4288838; P49450:CENPA; NbExp=4; IntAct=EBI-302023, EBI-1751979; O14929:HAT1; NbExp=4; IntAct=EBI-302023, EBI-2339359; Q9Y468:L3MBTL1; NbExp=3; IntAct=EBI-302023, EBI-1265089; P49736:MCM2; NbExp=3; IntAct=EBI-302023, EBI-374819; P25205:MCM3; NbExp=2; IntAct=EBI-302023, EBI-355153; P33992:MCM5; NbExp=2; IntAct=EBI-302023, EBI-359410; O14744:PRMT5; NbExp=3; IntAct=EBI-302023, EBI-351098; Q16576:RBBP7; NbExp=4; IntAct=EBI-302023, EBI-352227; Q9NQR1:SETD8; NbExp=4; IntAct=EBI-302023, EBI-1268946; SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Nucleus. Chromosome. PTM: Acetylation at Lys-6 (H4K5ac), Lys-9 (H4K8ac), Lys-13 (H4K12ac) and Lys-17 (H4K16ac) occurs in coding regions of the genome but not in heterochromatin. PTM: Citrullination at Arg-4 (H4R3ci) by PADI4 impairs methylation. PTM: Monomethylation and asymmetric dimethylation at Arg-4 (H4R3me1 and H4R3me2a, respectively) by PRMT1 favors acetylation at Lys-9 (H4K8ac) and Lys-13 (H4K12ac). Demethylation is performed by JMJD6. Symmetric dimethylation on Arg-4 (H4R3me2s) by the PRDM1/PRMT5 complex may play a crucial role in the germ-cell lineage. PTM: Monomethylated, dimethylated or trimethylated at Lys-21 (H4K20me1, H4K20me2, H4K20me3). Monomethylation is performed by SET8. Trimethylation is performed by SUV420H1 and SUV420H2 and induces gene silencing. PTM: Phosphorylated by PAK2 at Ser-48 (H4S47ph). This phosphorylation increases the association of H3.3-H4 with the histone chaperone HIRA, thus promoting nucleosome assembly of H3.3-H4 and inhibiting nucleosome assembly of H3.1-H4. PTM: Ubiquitinated by the CUL4-DDB-RBX1 complex in response to ultraviolet irradiation. This may weaken the interaction between histones and DNA and facilitate DNA accessibility to repair proteins. Monoubiquitinated at Lys-92 of histone H4 (H4K91ub1) in response to DNA damage. The exact role of H4K91ub1 in DNA damage response is still unclear but it may function as a licensing signal for additional histone H4 post-translational modifications such as H4 Lys-21 methylation (H4K20me). PTM: Sumoylated, which is associated with transcriptional repression. PTM: Crotonylation (Kcr) is specifically present in male germ cells and marks testis-specific genes in post-meiotic cells, including X-linked genes that escape sex chromosome inactivation in haploid cells. Crotonylation marks active promoters and enhancers and confers resistance to transcriptional repressors. It is also associated with post-meiotically activated genes on autosomes. SIMILARITY: Belongs to the histone H4 family. SEQUENCE CAUTION: Sequence=AAI28106.1; Type=Frameshift; Positions=3;
The RNAfold program from the Vienna RNA Package is used to perform the secondary structure predictions and folding calculations. The estimated folding energy is in kcal/mol. The more negative the energy, the more secondary structure the RNA is likely to have.
ModBase Predicted Comparative 3D Structure on P62805
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Orthologous Genes in Other Species
Orthologies between human, mouse, and rat are computed by taking the best BLASTP hit, and filtering out non-syntenic hits. For more distant species reciprocal-best BLASTP hits are used. Note that the absence of an ortholog in the table below may reflect incomplete annotations in the other species rather than a true absence of the orthologous gene.
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations with Structured Vocabulary