Human Gene PARN (uc010uzd.2) Description and Page Index
Description: Homo sapiens poly(A)-specific ribonuclease (PARN), transcript variant 1, mRNA. RefSeq Summary (NM_002582): The protein encoded by this gene is a 3'-exoribonuclease, with similarity to the RNase D family of 3'-exonucleases. It prefers poly(A) as the substrate, hence, efficiently degrades poly(A) tails of mRNAs. Exonucleolytic degradation of the poly(A) tail is often the first step in the decay of eukaryotic mRNAs. This protein is also involved in silencing of certain maternal mRNAs during oocyte maturation and early embryonic development, as well as in nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) of mRNAs that contain premature stop codons. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2008]. Transcript (Including UTRs) Position: hg19 chr16:14,529,557-14,724,128 Size: 194,572 Total Exon Count: 24 Strand: - Coding Region Position: hg19 chr16:14,530,574-14,723,982 Size: 193,409 Coding Exon Count: 24
ID:PARN_HUMAN DESCRIPTION: RecName: Full=Poly(A)-specific ribonuclease PARN; EC=188.8.131.52; AltName: Full=Deadenylating nuclease; AltName: Full=Deadenylation nuclease; AltName: Full=Polyadenylate-specific ribonuclease; FUNCTION: 3'-exoribonuclease that has a preference for poly(A) tails of mRNAs, thereby efficiently degrading poly(A) tails. Exonucleolytic degradation of the poly(A) tail is often the first step in the decay of eukaryotic mRNAs and is also used to silence certain maternal mRNAs translationally during oocyte maturation and early embryonic development. Interacts with both the 3'-end poly(A) tail and the 5'-end cap structure during degradation, the interaction with the cap structure being required for an efficient degradation of poly(A) tails. Involved in nonsense-mediated mRNA decay, a critical process of selective degradation of mRNAs that contain premature stop codons. Also involved in degradation of inherently unstable mRNAs that contain AU-rich elements (AREs) in their 3'-UTR, possibly via its interaction with KHSRP. Probably mediates the removal of poly(A) tails of AREs mRNAs, which constitutes the first step of destabilization. CATALYTIC ACTIVITY: Exonucleolytic cleavage of poly(A) to 5'-AMP. COFACTOR: Divalent metal cations. Mg(2+) is the most probable. SUBUNIT: Homodimer. Interacts with KHSRP and CELF1/CUGBP1. Found in a mRNA decay complex with RENT1, RENT2 and RENT3B. Interacts with ZC3HAV1 in an RNA-independent manner. SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Nucleus. Cytoplasm. Nucleus, nucleolus. Note=Some nuclear fraction is nucleolar. TISSUE SPECIFICITY: Ubiquitous. PTM: Phosphorylation by MAPKAPK2, preventing GADD45A mRNA degradation after genotoxic stress. SIMILARITY: Belongs to the CAF1 family. SIMILARITY: Contains 1 R3H domain.
Genetic Association Studies of Complex Diseases and Disorders
Genetic Association Database (archive): PARN CDC HuGE Published Literature: PARN
The RNAfold program from the Vienna RNA Package is used to perform the secondary structure predictions and folding calculations. The estimated folding energy is in kcal/mol. The more negative the energy, the more secondary structure the RNA is likely to have.
ModBase Predicted Comparative 3D Structure on O95453
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Orthologous Genes in Other Species
Orthologies between human, mouse, and rat are computed by taking the best BLASTP hit, and filtering out non-syntenic hits. For more distant species reciprocal-best BLASTP hits are used. Note that the absence of an ortholog in the table below may reflect incomplete annotations in the other species rather than a true absence of the orthologous gene.