Human Gene AXL (uc010ehj.3) Description and Page Index
Description: Homo sapiens AXL receptor tyrosine kinase (AXL), transcript variant 1, mRNA. RefSeq Summary (NM_021913): The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Tyro3-Axl-Mer (TAM) receptor tyrosine kinase subfamily. The encoded protein possesses an extracellular domain which is composed of two immunoglobulin-like motifs at the N-terminal, followed by two fibronectin type-III motifs. It transduces signals from the extracellular matrix into the cytoplasm by binding to the vitamin K-dependent protein growth arrest-specific 6 (Gas6). This gene may be involved in several cellular functions including growth, migration, aggregation and anti-inflammation in multiple cell types. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants of this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]. Transcript (Including UTRs) Position: hg19 chr19:41,725,108-41,767,671 Size: 42,564 Total Exon Count: 20 Strand: + Coding Region Position: hg19 chr19:41,725,298-41,765,809 Size: 40,512 Coding Exon Count: 20
ID:UFO_HUMAN DESCRIPTION: RecName: Full=Tyrosine-protein kinase receptor UFO; EC=22.214.171.124; AltName: Full=AXL oncogene; Flags: Precursor; FUNCTION: Receptor tyrosine kinase that transduces signals from the extracellular matrix into the cytoplasm by binding growth factor GAS6 and which is thus regulating many physiological processes including cell survival, cell proliferation, migration and differentiation. Ligand binding at the cell surface induces dimerization and autophosphorylation of AXL. Following activation by ligand, ALX binds and induces tyrosine phosphorylation of PI3- kinase subunits PIK3R1, PIK3R2 and PIK3R3; but also GRB2, PLCG1, LCK and PTPN11. Other downstream substrate candidates for AXL are CBL, NCK2, SOCS1 and TENC1. Recruitment of GRB2 and phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase regulatory subunits by AXL leads to the downstream activation of the AKT kinase. GAS6/AXL signaling plays a role in various processes such as endothelial cell survival during acidification by preventing apoptosis, optimal cytokine signaling during human natural killer cell development, hepatic regeneration, gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuron survival and migration, platelet activation, or regulation of thrombotic responses. Plays also an important role in inhibition of Toll-like receptors (TLRs)-mediated innate immune response. In case of filovirus infection, seems to function as a cell entry factor. CATALYTIC ACTIVITY: ATP + a [protein]-L-tyrosine = ADP + a [protein]-L-tyrosine phosphate. ENZYME REGULATION: Activated by GAS6-binding and subsequent autophosphorylation. SUBUNIT: Heterodimer and heterotetramer with ligand GAS6. Interacts with CBL, GRB2, LCK, NCK2, PIK3R1, PIK3R2, PIK3R3, PLCG1, SOCS1 and TENC1. Part of a complex including AXL, TNK2 and GRB2, in which GRB2 promotes AXL recruitment by TNK2. SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Cell membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein. TISSUE SPECIFICITY: Highly expressed in metastatic colon tumors. Expressed in primary colon tumors. Weakly expressed in normal colon tissue. PTM: Monoubiquitinated upon GAS6-binding. A very small proportion of the receptor could be subjected to polyubiquitination in a very transient fashion. PTM: Phosphorylated at tyrosine residues by autocatalysis, which activates kinase activity. DISEASE: Note=AXL and its ligand GAS6 are highly expressed in thyroid carcinoma tissues, and might thus be involved in thiroid tumorigenesis. Overexpression of AXL and its ligand was also detected in many other cancers such as myeloptoliferative disorders, prostatic carcinoma cells, or breast cancer. SIMILARITY: Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. Tyr protein kinase family. AXL/UFO subfamily. SIMILARITY: Contains 2 fibronectin type-III domains. SIMILARITY: Contains 2 Ig-like C2-type (immunoglobulin-like) domains. SIMILARITY: Contains 1 protein kinase domain.
Genetic Association Studies of Complex Diseases and Disorders
Genetic Association Database (archive): AXL CDC HuGE Published Literature: AXL
The RNAfold program from the Vienna RNA Package is used to perform the secondary structure predictions and folding calculations. The estimated folding energy is in kcal/mol. The more negative the energy, the more secondary structure the RNA is likely to have.
ModBase Predicted Comparative 3D Structure on P30530
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Orthologous Genes in Other Species
Orthologies between human, mouse, and rat are computed by taking the best BLASTP hit, and filtering out non-syntenic hits. For more distant species reciprocal-best BLASTP hits are used. Note that the absence of an ortholog in the table below may reflect incomplete annotations in the other species rather than a true absence of the orthologous gene.