Human Gene MRPL16 (uc001noh.2) Description and Page Index
  Description: Homo sapiens mitochondrial ribosomal protein L16 (MRPL16), nuclear gene encoding mitochondrial protein, mRNA.
RefSeq Summary (NM_017840): Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 39S subunit protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]. ##Evidence-Data-START## Transcript exon combination :: AF183428.1, SRR5189667.360977.1 [ECO:0000332] RNAseq introns :: mixed/partial sample support SAMEA1965299, SAMEA1966682 [ECO:0000350] ##Evidence-Data-END## ##RefSeq-Attributes-START## gene product(s) localized to mito. :: reported by MitoCarta MANE Ensembl match :: ENST00000300151.5/ ENSP00000300151.4 RefSeq Select criteria :: based on single protein-coding transcript ##RefSeq-Attributes-END##
Transcript (Including UTRs)
   Position: hg19 chr11:59,573,608-59,578,345 Size: 4,738 Total Exon Count: 4 Strand: -
Coding Region
   Position: hg19 chr11:59,573,820-59,578,131 Size: 4,312 Coding Exon Count: 4 

Page IndexSequence and LinksUniProtKB CommentsGenetic AssociationsCTDGene Alleles
RNA-Seq ExpressionMicroarray ExpressionRNA StructureProtein StructureOther SpeciesGO Annotations
mRNA DescriptionsPathwaysOther NamesModel InformationMethods
Data last updated: 2013-06-14

-  Sequence and Links to Tools and Databases
Genomic Sequence (chr11:59,573,608-59,578,345)mRNA (may differ from genome)Protein (251 aa)
Gene SorterGenome BrowserOther Species FASTAVisiGeneGene interactionsTable Schema
BioGPSCGAPEnsemblEntrez GeneExonPrimerGeneCards
neXtProtOMIMPubMedReactomeStanford SOURCETreefam

-  Comments and Description Text from UniProtKB
DESCRIPTION: RecName: Full=39S ribosomal protein L16, mitochondrial; Short=L16mt; Short=MRP-L16; Flags: Precursor;
FUNCTION: Component of the large subunit of mitochondrial ribosome.
SIMILARITY: Belongs to the ribosomal protein L16P family.
SEQUENCE CAUTION: Sequence=AAG23818.1; Type=Erroneous initiation;

-  Genetic Association Studies of Complex Diseases and Disorders
  Genetic Association Database (archive): MRPL16
CDC HuGE Published Literature: MRPL16

-  Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD)
  The following chemicals interact with this gene           more ... click here to view the complete list

+  Common Gene Haplotype Alleles
  Press "+" in the title bar above to open this section.

-  RNA-Seq Expression Data from GTEx (53 Tissues, 570 Donors)
  Highest median expression: 48.90 RPKM in Cells - EBV-transformed lymphocytes
Total median expression: 1165.48 RPKM

View in GTEx track of Genome Browser    View at GTEx portal     View GTEx Body Map

+  Microarray Expression Data
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-  mRNA Secondary Structure of 3' and 5' UTRs
RegionFold EnergyBasesEnergy/Base
Display As
5' UTR -88.25214-0.412 Picture PostScript Text
3' UTR -42.09212-0.199 Picture PostScript Text

The RNAfold program from the Vienna RNA Package is used to perform the secondary structure predictions and folding calculations. The estimated folding energy is in kcal/mol. The more negative the energy, the more secondary structure the RNA is likely to have.

-  Protein Domain and Structure Information
  InterPro Domains: Graphical view of domain structure
IPR016180 - Ribosomal_L10e/L16
IPR000114 - Ribosomal_L16

Pfam Domains:
PF00252 - Ribosomal protein L16p/L10e

SCOP Domains:
54686 - Ribosomal protein L10e

ModBase Predicted Comparative 3D Structure on Q9NX20
The pictures above may be empty if there is no ModBase structure for the protein. The ModBase structure frequently covers just a fragment of the protein. You may be asked to log onto ModBase the first time you click on the pictures. It is simplest after logging in to just click on the picture again to get to the specific info on that model.

-  Orthologous Genes in Other Species
  Orthologies between human, mouse, and rat are computed by taking the best BLASTP hit, and filtering out non-syntenic hits. For more distant species reciprocal-best BLASTP hits are used. Note that the absence of an ortholog in the table below may reflect incomplete annotations in the other species rather than a true absence of the orthologous gene.
MouseRatZebrafishD. melanogasterC. elegansS. cerevisiae
No orthologGenome BrowserGenome BrowserGenome BrowserGenome BrowserNo ortholog
Gene DetailsGene Details Gene DetailsGene Details 
Gene SorterGene Sorter Gene SorterGene Sorter 
 Protein SequenceProtein SequenceProtein SequenceProtein Sequence 

-  Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations with Structured Vocabulary
  Molecular Function:
GO:0003735 structural constituent of ribosome
GO:0019843 rRNA binding

Biological Process:
GO:0006412 translation
GO:0032543 mitochondrial translation
GO:0070125 mitochondrial translational elongation
GO:0070126 mitochondrial translational termination

Cellular Component:
GO:0005739 mitochondrion
GO:0005743 mitochondrial inner membrane
GO:0005762 mitochondrial large ribosomal subunit
GO:0005840 ribosome

-  Descriptions from all associated GenBank mRNAs
  LF211257 - JP 2014500723-A/18760: Polycomb-Associated Non-Coding RNAs.
BC001040 - Homo sapiens mitochondrial ribosomal protein L16, mRNA (cDNA clone MGC:1035 IMAGE:2823370), complete cds.
BC019269 - Homo sapiens mitochondrial ribosomal protein L16, mRNA (cDNA clone MGC:3450 IMAGE:2823370), complete cds.
AB049642 - Homo sapiens MRPL16 mRNA for mitochondrial ribosomal protein L16 (L16mt), complete cds.
AK000491 - Homo sapiens cDNA FLJ20484 fis, clone KAT07770.
AF183428 - Homo sapiens 28.4 kDa protein mRNA, complete cds.
AF275806 - Homo sapiens PNAS-111 mRNA, complete cds.
JD307708 - Sequence 288732 from Patent EP1572962.
LF345079 - JP 2014500723-A/152582: Polycomb-Associated Non-Coding RNAs.
CU674518 - Synthetic construct Homo sapiens gateway clone IMAGE:100018056 5' read MRPL16 mRNA.
HQ447214 - Synthetic construct Homo sapiens clone IMAGE:100070515; CCSB005378_04 mitochondrial ribosomal protein L16 (MRPL16) gene, encodes complete protein.
KJ894099 - Synthetic construct Homo sapiens clone ccsbBroadEn_03493 MRPL16 gene, encodes complete protein.
CR457117 - Homo sapiens full open reading frame cDNA clone RZPDo834D099D for gene MRPL16, mitochondrial ribosomal protein L16; complete cds, incl. stopcodon.
LF345078 - JP 2014500723-A/152581: Polycomb-Associated Non-Coding RNAs.
LF345077 - JP 2014500723-A/152580: Polycomb-Associated Non-Coding RNAs.
LF345076 - JP 2014500723-A/152579: Polycomb-Associated Non-Coding RNAs.
LF345075 - JP 2014500723-A/152578: Polycomb-Associated Non-Coding RNAs.
JD443918 - Sequence 424942 from Patent EP1572962.
MA580656 - JP 2018138019-A/152582: Polycomb-Associated Non-Coding RNAs.
MA580655 - JP 2018138019-A/152581: Polycomb-Associated Non-Coding RNAs.
MA580654 - JP 2018138019-A/152580: Polycomb-Associated Non-Coding RNAs.
MA580653 - JP 2018138019-A/152579: Polycomb-Associated Non-Coding RNAs.
MA580652 - JP 2018138019-A/152578: Polycomb-Associated Non-Coding RNAs.
MA446834 - JP 2018138019-A/18760: Polycomb-Associated Non-Coding RNAs.

-  Biochemical and Signaling Pathways
  Reactome (by CSHL, EBI, and GO)

Protein Q9NX20 (Reactome details) participates in the following event(s):

R-HSA-5389839 39S subunit binds 28S subunit:mRNA:fMet-tRNA
R-HSA-5419273 Hydrolysis of GTP and dissociation of 28S and 39S subunits
R-HSA-5389848 TUFM:GTP:aminoacyl-tRNA binds 55S ribosome:mRNA:fMet-tRNA
R-HSA-5389857 Peptide transfer from P-site to A-site (peptide bond formation)
R-HSA-5389842 TUFM hydrolyzes GTP and TUFM:GDP dissociates from 55S ribosome
R-HSA-5419261 55S ribosome with peptidyl-tRNA in A site binds GFM1:GTP
R-HSA-5419281 MRRF binds 55S ribosome:mRNA:tRNA
R-HSA-5419279 Translocation of peptidyl-tRNA from A-site to P-site (and translocation of 55S ribosome by 3 bases along mRNA)
R-HSA-5419264 MTRF1L (MTRF1a) or ICT1 binds stop codon in 55S ribosome:mRNA:peptidyl-tRNA
R-HSA-5419277 GFM2:GTP binds 55S ribosome:mRNA:tRNA:MRRF releasing mRNA and tRNA
R-HSA-5368286 Mitochondrial translation initiation
R-HSA-5419276 Mitochondrial translation termination
R-HSA-5368287 Mitochondrial translation
R-HSA-5389840 Mitochondrial translation elongation
R-HSA-72766 Translation
R-HSA-392499 Metabolism of proteins

-  Other Names for This Gene
  Alternate Gene Symbols: NM_017840, NP_060310, PNAS-111, Q9BYD0, Q9HB70, Q9NX20, RM16_HUMAN
UCSC ID: uc001noh.2
RefSeq Accession: NM_017840
Protein: Q9NX20 (aka RM16_HUMAN)
CCDS: CCDS7976.1

-  Gene Model Information
category: coding nonsense-mediated-decay: no RNA accession: NM_017840.3
exon count: 4CDS single in 3' UTR: no RNA size: 1196
ORF size: 756CDS single in intron: no Alignment % ID: 100.00
txCdsPredict score: 1712.00frame shift in genome: no % Coverage: 98.83
has start codon: yes stop codon in genome: no # of Alignments: 1
has end codon: yes retained intron: no # AT/AC introns 0
selenocysteine: no end bleed into intron: 0# strange splices: 0
Click here for a detailed description of the fields of the table above.

-  Methods, Credits, and Use Restrictions
  Click here for details on how this gene model was made and data restrictions if any.