Human Gene LRP6 (uc001rah.4) Description and Page Index
Description: Homo sapiens low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6), mRNA. RefSeq Summary (NM_002336): This gene encodes a member of the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor gene family. LDL receptors are transmembrane cell surface proteins involved in receptor-mediated endocytosis of lipoprotein and protein ligands. The protein encoded by this gene functions as a receptor or, with Frizzled, a co-receptor for Wnt and thereby transmits the canonical Wnt/beta-catenin signaling cascade. Through its interaction with the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling cascade this gene plays a role in the regulation of cell differentiation, proliferation, and migration and the development of many cancer types. This protein undergoes gamma-secretase dependent RIP- (regulated intramembrane proteolysis) processing but the precise locations of the cleavage sites have not been determined.[provided by RefSeq, Dec 2009]. Publication Note: This RefSeq record includes a subset of the publications that are available for this gene. Please see the Gene record to access additional publications. ##Evidence-Data-START## Transcript exon combination :: SRR1803614.74061.1, SRR1660805.173648.1 [ECO:0000332] RNAseq introns :: mixed/partial sample support SAMEA1965299, SAMEA1966682 [ECO:0000350] ##Evidence-Data-END## ##RefSeq-Attributes-START## MANE Ensembl match :: ENST00000261349.9/ ENSP00000261349.4 RefSeq Select criteria :: based on conservation, expression, longest protein ##RefSeq-Attributes-END## Transcript (Including UTRs) Position: hg19 chr12:12,268,961-12,419,811 Size: 150,851 Total Exon Count: 23 Strand: - Coding Region Position: hg19 chr12:12,274,060-12,419,669 Size: 145,610 Coding Exon Count: 23
ID:LRP6_HUMAN DESCRIPTION: RecName: Full=Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6; Short=LRP-6; Flags: Precursor; FUNCTION: Component of the Wnt-Fzd-LRP5-LRP6 complex that triggers beta-catenin signaling through inducing aggregation of receptor- ligand complexes into ribosome-sized signalsomes. Cell-surface coreceptor of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling, which plays a pivotal role in bone formation. The Wnt-induced Fzd/LRP6 coreceptor complex recruits DVL1 polymers to the plasma membrane which, in turn, recruits the AXIN1/GSK3B-complex to the cell surface promoting the formation of signalsomes and inhibiting AXIN1/GSK3- mediated phosphorylation and destruction of beta-catenin. Required for posterior patterning of the epiblast during gastrulation (By similarity). SUBUNIT: Homodimer; disulfide-linked. Forms phosphorylated oligomer aggregates on Wnt-signaling. Forms a WNT-signaling complex formed of a WNT protein, a FZD protein and LRP5 or LRP6. Interacts (via the extracellular domain) with WNT1; the interaction is enhanced by prior formation of the Wnt/Fzd complex. Interacts (via the beta-propeller regions 3 and 4) with WNT3A. Interacts (via the beta-propeller regions 1 and 2) with WNT9B. Interacts with FZD5; the interaction forms a coreceptor complex for Wnt signaling and is inhibited by DKK1 and C1orf187. Interacts (via beta propeller region) with DKK1; the interaction inhibits FZD5/LRP6 complex formation. Interacts with DKK2. Interacts with C1orf187/DRAXIN; the interaction inhibits Wnt signaling (By similarity). Interacts (via the phosphorylated PPPSP motifs) with AXIN1; the interaction recruits the AXIN1/GSK3B complex to cell surface LRP6 signalsomes. Interacts with GRB10; the interaction prevents AXIN1 binding, thus negatively regulating the Wnt signaling pathway (By similarity). Interacts (via the extracellular domain) with RSPO1; the interaction activates Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. Interacts (via the extracellular domain) with RSPO3 (via the cysteine rich domain); the interaction activates Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. Interacts (via the beta- propeller regions 1 and 2) with SOST; the interaction competes with DKK1 for binding for inhibiting beta-catenin signaling. Interacts with MESD; the interaction prevents the formation of LRP6 aggregates and targets LRP6 to the plasma membrane (By similarity). Interacts (via the cytoplasmic domain) with CSNKIE; the interaction phosphorylates LRP6, binds AXIN1 and inhibits AXIN1/GSK3B-mediated phosphorylation of beta-catenin. Interacts with MACF1. Interacts with DAB2; the interaction involves LRP6 phosphorylation by CK2 and sequesters LRP6 towards clathrin- mediated endocytosis. INTERACTION: Q9H6X2:ANTXR1; NbExp=3; IntAct=EBI-910915, EBI-905643; Q5S007:LRRK2; NbExp=3; IntAct=EBI-910915, EBI-5323863; SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein. Endoplasmic reticulum. Note=On Wnt signaling, undergoes a cycle of caveolin- or clathrin-mediated endocytosis and plasma membrane location. Released from the endoplasmic reticulum on palmitoylation. Mono-ubiquitination retains it in the endoplasmic reticulum in the absence of palmitoylation. On Wnt signaling, phosphorylated, aggregates and colocalizes with AXIN1 and GSK3B at the plasma membrane in LRP6-signalsomes. Chaperoned to the plasma membrane by MESD (By similarity). TISSUE SPECIFICITY: Widely coexpressed with LRP5 during embryogenesis and in adult tissues. INDUCTION: Decreased levels on WNT3A stimulation. DOMAIN: The YWTD-EGF-like domains 1 and 2 are required for the interaction with Wnt-frizzled complex. The YWTD-EGF-like domains 3 and 4 are required for the interaction with DKK1. DOMAIN: The PPPSP motifs play a central role in signal transduction by being phosphorylated, leading to activate the Wnt signaling pathway. PTM: Dual phosphorylation of cytoplasmic PPPSP motifs sequentially by GSK3 and CK1 is required for AXIN1-binding, and subsequent stabilization and activation of beta-catenin via preventing GSK3- mediated phosphorylation of beta-catenin. Phosphorylated, in vitro, by GRK5/6 within and outside the PPPSP motifs. Phosphorylation at Ser-1490 by CDK14 during G2/M phase leads to regulation of the Wnt signaling pathway during the cell cycle. Phosphorylation by GSK3B is induced by RPSO1 binding and inhibited by DKK1. Phosphorylated, in vitro, by casein kinase I on Thr-1479. PTM: Undergoes gamma-secretase-dependent regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP). The extracellular domain is first released by shedding, and then, through the action of gamma-secretase, the intracellular domain (ICD) is released into the cytoplasm where it is free to bind to GSK3B and to activate canonical Wnt signaling. PTM: Palmitoylation on the two sites near the transmembrane domain leads to release of LRP6 from the endoplasmic reticulum. PTM: Mono-ubiquitinated which retains LRP6 in the endoplasmic reticulum. Ubiquitinated by ZNRF3, leading to its degradation by the proteasome. PTM: N-glycosylation is required for cell surface location. DISEASE: Defects in LRP6 are a cause of coronary artery disease, autosomal dominant, type 2 (ADCAD2) [MIM:610947]. A common heart disease characterized by reduced or absent blood flow in one or more of the arteries that encircle and supply the heart. Its most important complication is acute myocardial infarction. SIMILARITY: Belongs to the LDLR family. SIMILARITY: Contains 4 EGF-like domains. SIMILARITY: Contains 3 LDL-receptor class A domains. SIMILARITY: Contains 20 LDL-receptor class B repeats.
Genetic Association Studies of Complex Diseases and Disorders
Coronary Artery Disease|Dyslipidemias| Maciej Tomaszewski , et al. Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology 2009 29(9):1316-21, A common variant in low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 gene (LRP6) is associated with LDL-cholesterol., Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology 2009 29(9):1316-21.
Variant in LRP6 is associated with LDL-cholesterol
The RNAfold program from the Vienna RNA Package is used to perform the secondary structure predictions and folding calculations. The estimated folding energy is in kcal/mol. The more negative the energy, the more secondary structure the RNA is likely to have.
ModBase Predicted Comparative 3D Structure on O75581
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Orthologous Genes in Other Species
Orthologies between human, mouse, and rat are computed by taking the best BLASTP hit, and filtering out non-syntenic hits. For more distant species reciprocal-best BLASTP hits are used. Note that the absence of an ortholog in the table below may reflect incomplete annotations in the other species rather than a true absence of the orthologous gene.