Human Gene PRKAR2A (uc003cux.1) Description and Page Index
Description: Homo sapiens protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type II, alpha (PRKAR2A), mRNA. RefSeq Summary (NM_004157): cAMP is a signaling molecule important for a variety of cellular functions. cAMP exerts its effects by activating the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, which transduces the signal through phosphorylation of different target proteins. The inactive kinase holoenzyme is a tetramer composed of two regulatory and two catalytic subunits. cAMP causes the dissociation of the inactive holoenzyme into a dimer of regulatory subunits bound to four cAMP and two free monomeric catalytic subunits. Four different regulatory subunits and three catalytic subunits have been identified in humans. The protein encoded by this gene is one of the regulatory subunits. This subunit can be phosphorylated by the activated catalytic subunit. It may interact with various A-kinase anchoring proteins and determine the subcellular localization of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. This subunit has been shown to regulate protein transport from endosomes to the Golgi apparatus and further to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]. Sequence Note: This RefSeq record was created from transcript and genomic sequence data to make the sequence consistent with the reference genome assembly. The genomic coordinates used for the transcript record were based on transcript alignments. Publication Note: This RefSeq record includes a subset of the publications that are available for this gene. Please see the Gene record to access additional publications. ##Evidence-Data-START## Transcript exon combination :: SRR1660803.211463.1, SRR1660805.81083.1 [ECO:0000332] RNAseq introns :: mixed/partial sample support SAMEA1965299, SAMEA1966682 [ECO:0000350] ##Evidence-Data-END## ##RefSeq-Attributes-START## MANE Ensembl match :: ENST00000265563.13/ ENSP00000265563.8 RefSeq Select criteria :: based on conservation, expression, longest protein ##RefSeq-Attributes-END## Transcript (Including UTRs) Position: hg19 chr3:48,788,093-48,885,270 Size: 97,178 Total Exon Count: 11 Strand: - Coding Region Position: hg19 chr3:48,789,018-48,885,029 Size: 96,012 Coding Exon Count: 11
ID:KAP2_HUMAN DESCRIPTION: RecName: Full=cAMP-dependent protein kinase type II-alpha regulatory subunit; FUNCTION: Regulatory subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinases involved in cAMP signaling in cells. Type II regulatory chains mediate membrane association by binding to anchoring proteins, including the MAP2 kinase. SUBUNIT: The inactive form of the enzyme is composed of two regulatory chains and two catalytic chains. Activation by cAMP produces two active catalytic monomers and a regulatory dimer that binds four cAMP molecules. Interacts with AKAP4 and CBFA2T3. Interacts with the phosphorylated form of PJA2. Interacts with MYRIP. This interaction may link PKA to components of the exocytosis machinery, thus facilitating exocytosis, including insulin release (By similarity). SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Cytoplasm. Cell membrane. Note=Co-localizes with PJA2 in the cytoplasm and the cell membrane. TISSUE SPECIFICITY: Four types of regulatory chains are found: I- alpha, I-beta, II-alpha, and II-beta. Their expression varies among tissues and is in some cases constitutive and in others inducible. PTM: Phosphorylated by the activated catalytic chain. SIMILARITY: Belongs to the cAMP-dependent kinase regulatory chain family. SIMILARITY: Contains 2 cyclic nucleotide-binding domains.
Genetic Association Studies of Complex Diseases and Disorders
Genetic Association Database (archive): PRKAR2A CDC HuGE Published Literature: PRKAR2A
The RNAfold program from the Vienna RNA Package is used to perform the secondary structure predictions and folding calculations. The estimated folding energy is in kcal/mol. The more negative the energy, the more secondary structure the RNA is likely to have.
ModBase Predicted Comparative 3D Structure on P13861
The pictures above may be empty if there is no ModBase structure for the protein. The ModBase structure frequently covers just a fragment of the protein. You may be asked to log onto ModBase the first time you click on the pictures. It is simplest after logging in to just click on the picture again to get to the specific info on that model.
Orthologous Genes in Other Species
Orthologies between human, mouse, and rat are computed by taking the best BLASTP hit, and filtering out non-syntenic hits. For more distant species reciprocal-best BLASTP hits are used. Note that the absence of an ortholog in the table below may reflect incomplete annotations in the other species rather than a true absence of the orthologous gene.
Biological Process: GO:0001932 regulation of protein phosphorylation GO:0003091 renal water homeostasis GO:0007596 blood coagulation GO:0034199 activation of protein kinase A activity GO:0035556 intracellular signal transduction GO:0071377 cellular response to glucagon stimulus GO:2000480 negative regulation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity
AK293042 - Homo sapiens cDNA FLJ75444 complete cds, highly similar to Homo sapiens protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type II, alpha (PRKAR2A), mRNA. AK023535 - Homo sapiens cDNA FLJ13473 fis, clone PLACE1003592. BC002763 - Homo sapiens protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type II, alpha, mRNA (cDNA clone MGC:3606 IMAGE:3629579), complete cds. X14968 - Human testis mRNA for the RII-alpha subunit of cAMP dependent protein kinase. JD101672 - Sequence 82696 from Patent EP1572962. JD551599 - Sequence 532623 from Patent EP1572962. JD114802 - Sequence 95826 from Patent EP1572962. JD257113 - Sequence 238137 from Patent EP1572962. BT007225 - Homo sapiens protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type II, alpha mRNA, complete cds. KJ901660 - Synthetic construct Homo sapiens clone ccsbBroadEn_11054 PRKAR2A gene, encodes complete protein. KJ905285 - Synthetic construct Homo sapiens clone ccsbBroadEn_14786 PRKAR2A gene, encodes complete protein. KU178276 - Homo sapiens protein kinase cAMP-dependent regulatory type II alpha isoform 1 (PRKAR2A) mRNA, partial cds, alternatively spliced. KU178277 - Homo sapiens protein kinase cAMP-dependent regulatory type II alpha isoform 2 (PRKAR2A) mRNA, partial cds. AB464095 - Synthetic construct DNA, clone: pF1KB6582, Homo sapiens PRKAR2A gene for protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type II alpha, without stop codon, in Flexi system. CU678176 - Synthetic construct Homo sapiens gateway clone IMAGE:100019171 5' read PRKAR2A mRNA. GQ472202 - Homo sapiens epididymis secretory sperm binding protein Li 169mP (HEL-S-169mP) mRNA, complete cds. JD458592 - Sequence 439616 from Patent EP1572962. JD204692 - Sequence 185716 from Patent EP1572962. JD458596 - Sequence 439620 from Patent EP1572962.
Biochemical and Signaling Pathways
KEGG - Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes hsa04210 - Apoptosis hsa04910 - Insulin signaling pathway
BioCarta from NCI Cancer Genome Anatomy Project h_CSKPathway - Activation of Csk by cAMP-dependent Protein Kinase Inhibits Signaling through the T Cell Receptor h_mCalpainPathway - mCalpain and friends in Cell motility h_nos1Pathway - Nitric Oxide Signaling Pathway h_badPathway - Regulation of BAD phosphorylation h_vipPathway - Neuropeptides VIP and PACAP inhibit the apoptosis of activated T cells h_cftrPathway - Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and beta 2 adrenergic receptor (b2AR) pathway h_crebPathway - Transcription factor CREB and its extracellular signals h_dreampathway - Repression of Pain Sensation by the Transcriptional Regulator DREAM h_igf1rPathway - Multiple antiapoptotic pathways from IGF-1R signaling lead to BAD phosphorylation h_mPRPathway - How Progesterone Initiates the Oocyte Maturation h_nfatPathway - NFAT and Hypertrophy of the heart (Transcription in the broken heart) h_gpcrPathway - Signaling Pathway from G-Protein Families h_plcePathway - Phospholipase C-epsilon pathway h_agpcrPathway - Attenuation of GPCR Signaling h_chrebpPathway - ChREBP regulation by carbohydrates and cAMP h_ck1Pathway - Regulation of ck1/cdk5 by type 1 glutamate receptors h_pparaPathway - Mechanism of Gene Regulation by Peroxisome Proliferators via PPARa(alpha) h_akap95Pathway - AKAP95 role in mitosis and chromosome dynamics h_GATA3pathway - GATA3 participate in activating the Th2 cytokine genes expression h_carm1Pathway - Transcription Regulation by Methyltransferase of CARM1 h_no1Pathway - Actions of Nitric Oxide in the Heart h_shhPathway - Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) Pathway h_stathminPathway - Stathmin and breast cancer resistance to antimicrotubule agents h_akap13Pathway - Rho-Selective Guanine Exchange Factor AKAP13 Mediates Stress Fiber Formation h_akapCentrosomePathway - Protein Kinase A at the Centrosome