Human Gene LAIR1 (uc002qfk.1) Description and Page Index
Description: Homo sapiens leukocyte-associated immunoglobulin-like receptor 1 (LAIR1), transcript variant a, mRNA. RefSeq Summary (NM_002287): The protein encoded by this gene is an inhibitory receptor found on peripheral mononuclear cells, including natural killer cells, T cells, and B cells. Inhibitory receptors regulate the immune response to prevent lysis of cells recognized as self. The gene is a member of both the immunoglobulin superfamily and the leukocyte-associated inhibitory receptor family. The gene maps to a region of 19q13.4 called the leukocyte receptor cluster, which contains at least 29 genes encoding leukocyte-expressed receptors of the immunoglobulin superfamily. The encoded protein has been identified as an anchor for tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1, and may induce cell death in myeloid leukemias. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]. Transcript (Including UTRs) Position: hg19 chr19:54,865,235-54,876,721 Size: 11,487 Total Exon Count: 10 Strand: - Coding Region Position: hg19 chr19:54,866,877-54,876,411 Size: 9,535 Coding Exon Count: 10
ID:LAIR1_HUMAN DESCRIPTION: RecName: Full=Leukocyte-associated immunoglobulin-like receptor 1; Short=LAIR-1; Short=hLAIR1; AltName: CD_antigen=CD305; Flags: Precursor; FUNCTION: Functions as an inhibitory receptor that plays a constitutive negative regulatory role on cytolytic function of natural killer (NK) cells, B-cells and T-cells. Activation by Tyr phosphorylation results in recruitment and activation of the phosphatases PTPN6 and PTPN11. It also reduces the increase of intracellular calcium evoked by B-cell receptor ligation. May also play its inhibitory role independently of SH2-containing phosphatases. Modulates cytokine production in CD4+ T-cells, down- regulating IL2 and IFNG production while inducing secretion of transforming growth factor beta. Down-regulates also IgG and IgE production in B-cells as well as IL8, IL10 and TNF secretion. Inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in myeloid leukemia cell lines as well as prevents nuclear translocation of NF-kappa-B p65 subunit/RELA and phosphorylation of I-kappa-B alpha/CHUK in these cells. Inhibits the differentiation of peripheral blood precursors towards dendritic cells. SUBUNIT: Interacts with SH2 domains of tyrosine-protein phosphatases PTPN6 and PTPN11. The interaction with PTPN6 is constitutive. Interacts with the SH2 domain of CSK. SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Cell membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein. TISSUE SPECIFICITY: Expressed on the majority of peripheral mononuclear cells, including natural killer (NK) cells, T-cells, B-cells, monocytes, and dendritic cells. Highly expressed in naive T-cells and B-cells but no expression on germinal center B-cells. Abnormally low expression in naive B-cells from HIV-1 infected patients. Very low expression in NK cells from a patient with chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection. DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE: Complete loss of expression when naive B- cells proliferates and differentiates into Ig-producing plasma cells under in vitro stimulation. INDUCTION: By T-cell receptor stimulation in a process that requires p38 MAP kinase and ERK signaling. DOMAIN: ITIM (immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitor motif) motif is a cytoplasmic motif present in 2 copies in the intracellular part of LAIR1. When phosphorylated, ITIM motif can bind the SH2 domain of several SH2-containing phosphatases, leading to down- regulation of cell activation. PTM: Phosphorylation at Tyr-251 and Tyr-281 activates it. May be phosphorylated by LCK. PTM: N-glycosylated. SIMILARITY: Contains 1 Ig-like C2-type (immunoglobulin-like) domain.
The RNAfold program from the Vienna RNA Package is used to perform the secondary structure predictions and folding calculations. The estimated folding energy is in kcal/mol. The more negative the energy, the more secondary structure the RNA is likely to have.
ModBase Predicted Comparative 3D Structure on Q6GTX8
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Orthologous Genes in Other Species
Orthologies between human, mouse, and rat are computed by taking the best BLASTP hit, and filtering out non-syntenic hits. For more distant species reciprocal-best BLASTP hits are used. Note that the absence of an ortholog in the table below may reflect incomplete annotations in the other species rather than a true absence of the orthologous gene.