Human Gene BANF1 (uc001ogp.3) Description and Page Index
Description: Homo sapiens barrier to autointegration factor 1 (BANF1), transcript variant 2, mRNA. RefSeq Summary (NM_001143985): The protein encoded by this gene was first identified by its ability to protect retroviruses from intramolecular integration and therefore promote intermolecular integration into the host cell genome. The protein forms a homodimer which localizes to both the nucleus and cytoplasm and is specifically associated with chromosomes during mitosis. This protein binds to double stranded DNA in a non-specific manner and also binds to LEM-domain containing proteins of the nuclear envelope. This protein is thought to facilitate nuclear reassembly by binding with both DNA and inner nuclear membrane proteins and thereby recruit chromatin to the nuclear periphery. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding the same protein.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]. Transcript (Including UTRs) Position: hg19 chr11:65,769,550-65,771,617 Size: 2,068 Total Exon Count: 3 Strand: + Coding Region Position: hg19 chr11:65,770,722-65,771,243 Size: 522 Coding Exon Count: 2
ID:BAF_HUMAN DESCRIPTION: RecName: Full=Barrier-to-autointegration factor; AltName: Full=Breakpoint cluster region protein 1; FUNCTION: Plays fundamental roles in nuclear assembly, chromatin organization, gene expression and gonad development. May potently compress chromatin structure and be involved in membrane recruitment and chromatin decondensation during nuclear assembly. Contains 2 non-specific dsDNA-binding sites which may promote DNA cross-bridging. Exploited by retroviruses for inhibiting self- destructing autointegration of retroviral DNA, thereby promoting integration of viral DNA into the host chromosome. EMD and BAF are cooperative cofactors of HIV-1 infection. Association of EMD with the viral DNA requires the presence of BAF and viral integrase. The association of viral DNA with chromatin requires the presence of BAF and EMD. SUBUNIT: Homodimer. Heterodimerizes with BAFL. Interacts with ANKLE2/LEM4, leading to decreased phosphorylation by VRK1 and promoting dephosphorylation by protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). Binds non-specifically to double-stranded DNA, and is found as a hexamer or dodecamer upon DNA binding. Binds to LEM domain- containing nuclear proteins such as LEMD3/MAN1, TMPO/LAP2 and EMD (emerin). Interacts with CRX and LMNA (lamin-A). Binds linker histone H1.1 and core histones H3 with in vitro affinities of 500- 900 and 100-200 nM. Interacts with HIV-1 pre-integration complex in cytoplasm by binding to viral matrix protein and Gag polyprotein. SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Nucleus. Cytoplasm. Chromosome. Note=Significantly enriched at the nuclear inner membrane, diffusely throughout the nucleus during interphase and concentrated at the chromosomes during the M-phase. May be included in HIV-1 virions via its interaction with viral GAG polyprotein. The phosphorylated form (by VRK1) shows a cytoplasmic localization. TISSUE SPECIFICITY: Widely expressed. Expressed in colon, brain, heart, kidney, liver, lung, ovary, pancreas, placenta, prostate, skeletal muscle, small intestine, spleen and testis. Not detected in thymus and peripheral blood leukocytes. DOMAIN: Has a helix-hairpin-helix (HhH) structural motif conserved among proteins that bind non-specifically to DNA. DOMAIN: LEM domain proteins bind centrally on the BAF dimer, whereas DNA binds to the left and right sides. PTM: Ser-4 is the major site of phosphorylation as compared to Thr-2 and Thr-3. Phosphorylation on Thr-2; Thr-3 and Ser-4 disrupts its ability to bind DNA and reduces its ability to bind LEM domain-containing proteins. Non phosphorylated BAF seems to enhance binding between EMD and LMNA. Dephosphorylated by protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) following interaction with ANKLE2/LEM4 during mitotic exit, leading to mitotic nuclear envelope reassembly. DISEASE: Defects in BANF1 are the cause of Nestor-Guillermo progeria syndrome (NGPS) [MIM:614008]. NGPS is an atypical progeroid syndrome characterized by normal development in the first years of life, later followed by the emergence of generalized lipoatrophy, severe osteoporosis, and marked osteolysis. The atrophic facial subcutaneous fat pad and the marked osteolysis of the maxilla and mandible result in a typical pseudosenile facial appearance with micrognatia, prominent subcutaneous venous patterning, a convex nasal ridge, and proptosis. Cognitive development is completely normal. Patients do not have cardiovascular dysfunction, atherosclerosis, or metabolic anomalies. SIMILARITY: Belongs to the BAF family. SEQUENCE CAUTION: Sequence=AAC08964.1; Type=Frameshift; Positions=87;
The RNAfold program from the Vienna RNA Package is used to perform the secondary structure predictions and folding calculations. The estimated folding energy is in kcal/mol. The more negative the energy, the more secondary structure the RNA is likely to have.
ModBase Predicted Comparative 3D Structure on O75531
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Orthologous Genes in Other Species
Orthologies between human, mouse, and rat are computed by taking the best BLASTP hit, and filtering out non-syntenic hits. For more distant species reciprocal-best BLASTP hits are used. Note that the absence of an ortholog in the table below may reflect incomplete annotations in the other species rather than a true absence of the orthologous gene.