Human Gene CSNK2A1 (uc002wdx.1) Description and Page Index
Description: Homo sapiens casein kinase 2, alpha 1 polypeptide (CSNK2A1), transcript variant 2, mRNA. RefSeq Summary (NM_001895): Casein kinase II is a serine/threonine protein kinase that phosphorylates acidic proteins such as casein. It is involved in various cellular processes, including cell cycle control, apoptosis, and circadian rhythm. The kinase exists as a tetramer and is composed of an alpha, an alpha-prime, and two beta subunits. The alpha subunits contain the catalytic activity while the beta subunits undergo autophosphorylation. The protein encoded by this gene represents the alpha subunit. Multiple transcript variants encoding different protein isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2018]. Transcript (Including UTRs) Position: hg19 chr20:463,338-524,482 Size: 61,145 Total Exon Count: 13 Strand: - Coding Region Position: hg19 chr20:464,605-489,195 Size: 24,591 Coding Exon Count: 12
ID:CSK21_HUMAN DESCRIPTION: RecName: Full=Casein kinase II subunit alpha; Short=CK II alpha; EC=18.104.22.168; FUNCTION: Catalytic subunit of a constitutively active serine/threonine-protein kinase complex that phosphorylates a large number of substrates containing acidic residues C-terminal to the phosphorylated serine or threonine. Regulates numerous cellular processes, such as cell cycle progression, apoptosis and transcription, as well as viral infection. May act as a regulatory node which integrates and coordinates numerous signals leading to an appropriate cellular response. During mitosis, functions as a component of the p53/TP53-dependent spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) that maintains cyclin-B-CDK1 activity and G2 arrest in response to spindle damage. Also required for p53/TP53-mediated apoptosis, phosphorylating 'Ser-392' of p53/TP53 following UV irradiation. Can also negatively regulate apoptosis. Phosphorylates the caspases CASP9 and CASP2 and the apoptotic regulator NOL3. Phosphorylation protects CASP9 from cleavage and activation by CASP8, and inhibits the dimerization of CASP2 and activation of CASP8. Regulates transcription by direct phosphorylation of RNA polymerases I, II, III and IV. Also phosphorylates and regulates numerous transcription factors including NF-kappa-B, STAT1, CREB1, IRF1, IRF2, ATF1, SRF, MAX, JUN, FOS, MYC and MYB. Phosphorylates Hsp90 and its co-chaperones FKBP4 and CDC37, which is essential for chaperone function. Regulates Wnt signaling by phosphorylating CTNNB1 and the transcription factor LEF1. Acts as an ectokinase that phosphorylates several extracellular proteins. During viral infection, phosphorylates various proteins involved in the viral life cycles of EBV, HSV, HBV, HCV, HIV, CMV and HPV. CATALYTIC ACTIVITY: ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein. ENZYME REGULATION: Constitutively active protein kinase whose activity is not directly affected by phosphorylation. Seems to be regulated by level of expression and localization. SUBUNIT: Heterotetramer composed of two catalytic subunits (alpha chain and/or alpha' chain) and two regulatory subunits (beta chains). The tetramer can exist as a combination of 2 alpha/2 beta, 2 alpha'/2 beta or 1 alpha/1 alpha'/2 beta subunits. Also part of a CK2-SPT16-SSRP1 complex composed of SSRP1, SUPT16H, CSNK2A1, CSNK2A2 and CSNK2B, which forms following UV irradiation. Interacts with RNPS1. INTERACTION: O00257-3:CBX4; NbExp=2; IntAct=EBI-347804, EBI-4392727; P19784:CSNK2A2; NbExp=2; IntAct=EBI-347804, EBI-347451; P67870:CSNK2B; NbExp=10; IntAct=EBI-347804, EBI-348169; O60282:KIF5C; NbExp=4; IntAct=EBI-347804, EBI-717170; P29590:PML; NbExp=2; IntAct=EBI-347804, EBI-295890; Q96EB6:SIRT1; NbExp=2; IntAct=EBI-347804, EBI-1802965; PTM: Phosphorylated at Thr-344, Thr-360, Ser-362 and Ser-370 by CDK1 in prophase and metaphase and dephosphorylated during anaphase. Phosphorylation does not directly affect casein kinase 2 activity, but may contribute to its regulation by forming binding sites for interacting proteins and/or targeting it to different compartments. MISCELLANEOUS: Can use both ATP and GTP as phosphoryl donors. Phosphorylation by casein kinase 2 has been estimated to represent up to one quarter of the eukaryotic phosphoproteome. Casein kinase 2 has been found to be inccreased at protein level and up- regulated at the level of enzyme activity in the majority of cancers. However, elevated levels of casein kinase 2 are present in certain normal organs such as brain and testes. SIMILARITY: Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. Ser/Thr protein kinase family. CK2 subfamily. SIMILARITY: Contains 1 protein kinase domain.
Genetic Association Studies of Complex Diseases and Disorders
Genetic Association Database (archive): CSNK2A1 CDC HuGE Published Literature: CSNK2A1
The RNAfold program from the Vienna RNA Package is used to perform the secondary structure predictions and folding calculations. The estimated folding energy is in kcal/mol. The more negative the energy, the more secondary structure the RNA is likely to have.
ModBase Predicted Comparative 3D Structure on P68400
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Orthologous Genes in Other Species
Orthologies between human, mouse, and rat are computed by taking the best BLASTP hit, and filtering out non-syntenic hits. For more distant species reciprocal-best BLASTP hits are used. Note that the absence of an ortholog in the table below may reflect incomplete annotations in the other species rather than a true absence of the orthologous gene.