Human Gene SLC1A2 (ENST00000645194.1) Description and Page Index
  Description: Transports L-glutamate and also L- and D-aspartate. Essential for terminating the postsynaptic action of glutamate by rapidly removing released glutamate from the synaptic cleft. Acts as a symport by cotransporting sodium. (from UniProt P43004)
RefSeq Summary (NM_001195728): This gene encodes a member of a family of solute transporter proteins. The membrane-bound protein is the principal transporter that clears the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate from the extracellular space at synapses in the central nervous system. Glutamate clearance is necessary for proper synaptic activation and to prevent neuronal damage from excessive activation of glutamate receptors. Improper regulation of this gene is thought to be associated with several neurological disorders. Alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2017].
Gencode Transcript: ENST00000645194.1
Gencode Gene: ENSG00000110436.13
Transcript (Including UTRs)
   Position: hg38 chr11:35,259,837-35,418,409 Size: 158,573 Total Exon Count: 11 Strand: -
Coding Region
   Position: hg38 chr11:35,260,894-35,317,506 Size: 56,613 Coding Exon Count: 10 

Page IndexSequence and LinksUniProtKB CommentsMalaCardsCTDRNA-Seq Expression
Microarray ExpressionRNA StructureProtein StructureOther SpeciesGO AnnotationsmRNA Descriptions
PathwaysOther NamesMethods
Data last updated: 2019-09-04

-  Sequence and Links to Tools and Databases
Genomic Sequence (chr11:35,259,837-35,418,409)mRNA (may differ from genome)Protein (565 aa)
Gene SorterGenome BrowserOther Species FASTAGene interactionsTable SchemaBioGPS
LynxMGIneXtProtPubMedReactomeStanford SOURCE

-  Comments and Description Text from UniProtKB
DESCRIPTION: RecName: Full=Excitatory amino acid transporter 2; AltName: Full=Glutamate/aspartate transporter II; AltName: Full=Sodium-dependent glutamate/aspartate transporter 2; AltName: Full=Solute carrier family 1 member 2;
FUNCTION: Transports L-glutamate and also L- and D-aspartate. Essential for terminating the postsynaptic action of glutamate by rapidly removing released glutamate from the synaptic cleft. Acts as a symport by cotransporting sodium.
SUBUNIT: Homotrimer. Interacts with AJUBA (By similarity).
SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein.
PTM: Glycosylated.
PTM: Palmitoylation at Cys-38 is not required for correct subcellular localization, but is important for glutamate uptake activity (By similarity).
SIMILARITY: Belongs to the sodium:dicarboxylate (SDF) symporter (TC 2.A.23) family. SLC1A2 subfamily.

-  MalaCards Disease Associations
  MalaCards Gene Search: SLC1A2
Diseases sorted by gene-association score: epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 41* (1230), wernicke encephalopathy (13), temporal lobe epilepsy (12), periventricular leukomalacia (9), leukomalacia (9), essential tremor (8), motor neuron disease (8), dicarboxylic aminoaciduria (8), neuromyelitis optica (7), hepatic encephalopathy (6), brain edema (6), leukoencephalopathy, diffuse hereditary, with spheroids (6), morphine dependence (5), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 1 (4), lateral sclerosis (3), toxic encephalopathy (1), schizophrenia (1), stroke, ischemic (1)
* = Manually curated disease association

-  Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD)
  The following chemicals interact with this gene           more ... click here to view the complete list

-  RNA-Seq Expression Data from GTEx (53 Tissues, 570 Donors)
  Highest median expression: 300.58 RPKM in Brain - Caudate (basal ganglia)
Total median expression: 1746.71 RPKM

View in GTEx track of Genome Browser    View at GTEx portal     View GTEx Body Map

+  Microarray Expression Data
  Press "+" in the title bar above to open this section.

-  mRNA Secondary Structure of 3' and 5' UTRs
RegionFold EnergyBasesEnergy/Base
Display As
5' UTR -17.5071-0.246 Picture PostScript Text
3' UTR -248.401057-0.235 Picture PostScript Text

The RNAfold program from the Vienna RNA Package is used to perform the secondary structure predictions and folding calculations. The estimated folding energy is in kcal/mol. The more negative the energy, the more secondary structure the RNA is likely to have.

-  Protein Domain and Structure Information
  InterPro Domains: Graphical view of domain structure
IPR001991 - Na-dicarboxylate_symporter
IPR018107 - Na-dicarboxylate_symporter_CS

Pfam Domains:
PF00375 - Sodium:dicarboxylate symporter family

ModBase Predicted Comparative 3D Structure on P43004
The pictures above may be empty if there is no ModBase structure for the protein. The ModBase structure frequently covers just a fragment of the protein. You may be asked to log onto ModBase the first time you click on the pictures. It is simplest after logging in to just click on the picture again to get to the specific info on that model.

-  Orthologous Genes in Other Species
  Orthologies between human, mouse, and rat are computed by taking the best BLASTP hit, and filtering out non-syntenic hits. For more distant species reciprocal-best BLASTP hits are used. Note that the absence of an ortholog in the table below may reflect incomplete annotations in the other species rather than a true absence of the orthologous gene.
MouseRatZebrafishD. melanogasterC. elegansS. cerevisiae
Genome BrowserGenome BrowserNo orthologNo orthologNo orthologNo ortholog
Gene Details     
Gene Sorter     
Protein SequenceProtein Sequence    

-  Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations with Structured Vocabulary
  Molecular Function:
GO:0005313 L-glutamate transmembrane transporter activity
GO:0005314 high-affinity glutamate transmembrane transporter activity
GO:0005515 protein binding
GO:0008509 anion transmembrane transporter activity
GO:0015171 amino acid transmembrane transporter activity
GO:0015293 symporter activity
GO:0015501 glutamate:sodium symporter activity
GO:0046872 metal ion binding

Biological Process:
GO:0006811 ion transport
GO:0006865 amino acid transport
GO:0007268 chemical synaptic transmission
GO:0007399 nervous system development
GO:0007632 visual behavior
GO:0009416 response to light stimulus
GO:0009611 response to wounding
GO:0010259 multicellular organism aging
GO:0014047 glutamate secretion
GO:0015813 L-glutamate transport
GO:0021537 telencephalon development
GO:0030534 adult behavior
GO:0031668 cellular response to extracellular stimulus
GO:0035264 multicellular organism growth
GO:0042493 response to drug
GO:0043200 response to amino acid
GO:0046326 positive regulation of glucose import
GO:0070207 protein homotrimerization
GO:0070779 D-aspartate import
GO:0098656 anion transmembrane transport
GO:0098712 L-glutamate import across plasma membrane

Cellular Component:
GO:0005886 plasma membrane
GO:0005887 integral component of plasma membrane
GO:0009986 cell surface
GO:0016020 membrane
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane
GO:0030424 axon
GO:0030673 axolemma

-  Descriptions from all associated GenBank mRNAs
  AY066021 - Homo sapiens excitotoxic amino acid transporter 2 mRNA, complete cds.
BC132768 - Homo sapiens solute carrier family 1 (glial high affinity glutamate transporter), member 2, mRNA (cDNA clone MGC:164399 IMAGE:40146790), complete cds.
AK122843 - Homo sapiens cDNA FLJ16454 fis, clone BRAWH3005292, highly similar to Excitatory amino acid transporter 2.
AB209444 - Homo sapiens mRNA for solute carrier family 1, member 2 variant protein.
Z32517 - H.sapiens mRNA for glutamate transporter.
U01824 - Human glutamate/aspartate transporter II mRNA, complete cds.
D85884 - Homo sapiens mRNA for glutamate transporter, complete cds.
U03505 - Human excitatory amino acid transporter2 mRNA, complete cds.
AB527302 - Synthetic construct DNA, clone: pF1KB4461, Homo sapiens SLC1A2 gene for solute carrier family 1 (glial high affinity glutamate transporter), member 2, without stop codon, in Flexi system.
KP966086 - Homo sapiens excitatory amino acid transporter 2 splice variant d mRNA, complete cds, alternatively spliced.
AK298769 - Homo sapiens cDNA FLJ60794 complete cds, highly similar to Excitatory amino acid transporter 2.
S83375 - Homo sapiens HBGT mRNA, partial sequence.
JD431580 - Sequence 412604 from Patent EP1572962.
JD166025 - Sequence 147049 from Patent EP1572962.

-  Biochemical and Signaling Pathways
  KEGG - Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes
hsa05014 - Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)

Reactome (by CSHL, EBI, and GO)

Protein P43004 (Reactome details) participates in the following event(s):

R-HSA-210404 SLC1A1-3,6,7 exchange L-Glu, H+ and 3Na+ for K+
R-HSA-428015 SLC1A1,2,3,6,7 cotransport L-Glu,L-Asp,D-Asp,H+,3Na+ from extracellular region to cytosol
R-HSA-210439 glutamate uptake by astrocytes
R-HSA-210500 Glutamate Neurotransmitter Release Cycle
R-HSA-425374 Amino acid and oligopeptide SLC transporters
R-HSA-425393 Metabolism of nitrogenous molecules
R-HSA-210455 Astrocytic Glutamate-Glutamine Uptake And Metabolism
R-HSA-112310 Neurotransmitter release cycle
R-HSA-425407 SLC-mediated transmembrane transport
R-HSA-112313 Neurotransmitter uptake and metabolism In glial cells
R-HSA-112315 Transmission across Chemical Synapses
R-HSA-382551 Transport of small molecules
R-HSA-112316 Neuronal System

-  Other Names for This Gene
  Alternate Gene Symbols: AK122843, EAA2_HUMAN, EAAT2, GLT1, P43004, Q14417, Q541G6, uc285jau.1
UCSC ID: uc285jau.1
RefSeq Accession: NM_001195728
Protein: P43004 (aka EAA2_HUMAN)
CCDS: CCDS31459.1, CCDS55756.1

-  Methods, Credits, and Use Restrictions
  Click here for details on how this gene model was made and data restrictions if any.