Human Gene IL15 (ENST00000477265.5) Description and Page Index
  Description: Cytokine that stimulates the proliferation of T- lymphocytes. Stimulation by IL-15 requires interaction of IL-15 with components of IL-2R, including IL-2R beta and probably IL-2R gamma but not IL-2R alpha. (from UniProt P40933)
RefSeq Summary (NM_172175): The protein encoded by this gene is a cytokine that regulates T and natural killer cell activation and proliferation. This cytokine and interleukine 2 share many biological activities. They are found to bind common hematopoietin receptor subunits, and may compete for the same receptor, and thus negatively regulate each other's activity. The number of CD8+ memory cells is shown to be controlled by a balance between this cytokine and IL2. This cytokine induces the activation of JAK kinases, as well as the phosphorylation and activation of transcription activators STAT3, STAT5, and STAT6. Studies of the mouse counterpart suggested that this cytokine may increase the expression of apoptosis inhibitor BCL2L1/BCL-x(L), possibly through the transcription activation activity of STAT6, and thus prevent apoptosis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011].
Gencode Transcript: ENST00000477265.5
Gencode Gene: ENSG00000164136.17
Transcript (Including UTRs)
   Position: hg38 chr4:141,714,657-141,733,458 Size: 18,802 Total Exon Count: 7 Strand: +
Coding Region
   Position: hg38 chr4:141,721,149-141,732,848 Size: 11,700 Coding Exon Count: 5 

Page IndexSequence and LinksUniProtKB CommentsMalaCardsCTDRNA-Seq Expression
Microarray ExpressionRNA StructureProtein StructureOther SpeciesGO AnnotationsmRNA Descriptions
PathwaysOther NamesMethods
Data last updated: 2019-09-04

-  Sequence and Links to Tools and Databases
Genomic Sequence (chr4:141,714,657-141,733,458)mRNA (may differ from genome)Protein (135 aa)
Gene SorterGenome BrowserOther Species FASTAGene interactionsTable SchemaBioGPS
LynxMGIneXtProtPubMedReactomeStanford SOURCE

-  Comments and Description Text from UniProtKB
DESCRIPTION: RecName: Full=Interleukin-15; Short=IL-15; Flags: Precursor;
FUNCTION: Cytokine that stimulates the proliferation of T- lymphocytes. Stimulation by IL-15 requires interaction of IL-15 with components of IL-2R, including IL-2R beta and probably IL-2R gamma but not IL-2R alpha.
INTERACTION: Q13261:IL15RA; NbExp=3; IntAct=EBI-980274, EBI-980354;
SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Isoform IL15-S21AA: Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Note=IL15-S21AA is not secreted, but rather is stored intracellularly, appearing in the nucleus and cytoplasmic components.
TISSUE SPECIFICITY: Most abundant in placenta and skeletal muscle. It is also detected in the heart, lung, liver and kidney. IL15- S21AA is preferentially expressed in tissues such as testis and thymus.
SIMILARITY: Belongs to the IL-15/IL-21 family.
SEQUENCE CAUTION: Sequence=CAA71044.1; Type=Miscellaneous discrepancy; Note=Man-made cDNA construct with a sequence coding for signal peptide increasing the secretion of the protein (substitution with a signal peptide derived from the mouse IgV kappa chain);
WEB RESOURCE: Name=R&D Systems' cytokine source book: IL-15; URL="";
WEB RESOURCE: Name=Wikipedia; Note=Interleukin-15 entry; URL="";

-  MalaCards Disease Associations
  MalaCards Gene Search: IL15
Diseases sorted by gene-association score: rheumatoid arthritis (6), celiac disease (5), cutaneous t cell lymphoma (5), severe combined immunodeficiency (5), jak3-deficient severe combined immunodeficiency (3), refractory celiac disease (3), mycosis fungoides (3), sezary's disease (2), pelvic lipomatosis (2), rasmussen encephalitis (2), autoimmune disease of gastrointestinal tract (2), combined t cell and b cell immunodeficiency (1), eosinophilic gastritis (1), thymic dysplasia (1), chronic nk-cell lymphocytosis (1), bare lymphocyte syndrome, type i (1), carrion's disease (1), lymphoma, non-hodgkin (1)

-  Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD)
  The following chemicals interact with this gene           more ... click here to view the complete list

-  RNA-Seq Expression Data from GTEx (53 Tissues, 570 Donors)
  Highest median expression: 4.57 RPKM in Thyroid
Total median expression: 50.47 RPKM

View in GTEx track of Genome Browser    View at GTEx portal     View GTEx Body Map

+  Microarray Expression Data
  Press "+" in the title bar above to open this section.

-  mRNA Secondary Structure of 3' and 5' UTRs
RegionFold EnergyBasesEnergy/Base
Display As
5' UTR -1421.005008-0.284 Picture PostScript Text
3' UTR -142.40610-0.233 Picture PostScript Text

The RNAfold program from the Vienna RNA Package is used to perform the secondary structure predictions and folding calculations. The estimated folding energy is in kcal/mol. The more negative the energy, the more secondary structure the RNA is likely to have.

-  Protein Domain and Structure Information
  InterPro Domains: Graphical view of domain structure
IPR020439 - Interleukin-15
IPR020466 - Interleukin-15_mammal
IPR003443 - Interleukin_15-like

Pfam Domains:
PF02372 - Interleukin 15

Protein Data Bank (PDB) 3-D Structure
MuPIT help

- X-ray MuPIT

- X-ray MuPIT

- X-ray MuPIT

ModBase Predicted Comparative 3D Structure on P40933
The pictures above may be empty if there is no ModBase structure for the protein. The ModBase structure frequently covers just a fragment of the protein. You may be asked to log onto ModBase the first time you click on the pictures. It is simplest after logging in to just click on the picture again to get to the specific info on that model.

-  Orthologous Genes in Other Species
  Orthologies between human, mouse, and rat are computed by taking the best BLASTP hit, and filtering out non-syntenic hits. For more distant species reciprocal-best BLASTP hits are used. Note that the absence of an ortholog in the table below may reflect incomplete annotations in the other species rather than a true absence of the orthologous gene.
MouseRatZebrafishD. melanogasterC. elegansS. cerevisiae
Genome BrowserGenome BrowserNo orthologNo orthologNo orthologNo ortholog
Gene Details     
Gene Sorter     
Protein SequenceProtein Sequence    

-  Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations with Structured Vocabulary
  Molecular Function:
GO:0005125 cytokine activity
GO:0005126 cytokine receptor binding
GO:0005515 protein binding

Biological Process:
GO:0001779 natural killer cell differentiation
GO:0001866 NK T cell proliferation
GO:0006954 inflammatory response
GO:0006955 immune response
GO:0007165 signal transduction
GO:0007260 tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT protein
GO:0007267 cell-cell signaling
GO:0007568 aging
GO:0008284 positive regulation of cell proliferation
GO:0010469 regulation of receptor activity
GO:0014732 skeletal muscle atrophy
GO:0030212 hyaluronan metabolic process
GO:0031667 response to nutrient levels
GO:0032740 positive regulation of interleukin-17 production
GO:0032819 positive regulation of natural killer cell proliferation
GO:0032825 positive regulation of natural killer cell differentiation
GO:0034105 positive regulation of tissue remodeling
GO:0035723 interleukin-15-mediated signaling pathway
GO:0042102 positive regulation of T cell proliferation
GO:0042531 positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT protein
GO:0045062 extrathymic T cell selection
GO:0045580 regulation of T cell differentiation
GO:0048469 cell maturation
GO:0048535 lymph node development
GO:0048662 negative regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation
GO:0050691 regulation of defense response to virus by host
GO:0050729 positive regulation of inflammatory response
GO:0050778 positive regulation of immune response
GO:0071305 cellular response to vitamin D
GO:1904100 positive regulation of protein O-linked glycosylation

Cellular Component:
GO:0005576 extracellular region
GO:0005615 extracellular space
GO:0005634 nucleus
GO:0005654 nucleoplasm
GO:0005737 cytoplasm
GO:0005768 endosome
GO:0005794 Golgi apparatus
GO:0005829 cytosol
GO:0005887 integral component of plasma membrane
GO:0009986 cell surface
GO:0016020 membrane
GO:0016607 nuclear speck

-  Descriptions from all associated GenBank mRNAs
  AK290619 - Homo sapiens cDNA FLJ77069 complete cds, highly similar to Homo sapiens interleukin 15 (IL15), transcript variant 2, mRNA.
BC018149 - Homo sapiens interleukin 15, mRNA (cDNA clone MGC:9721 IMAGE:3851514), complete cds.
U14407 - Human interleukin 15 (IL15) mRNA, complete cds.
AK122993 - Homo sapiens cDNA FLJ16756 fis, clone BRACE3019828, highly similar to Interleukin-15 precursor.
JD280607 - Sequence 261631 from Patent EP1572962.
JD507789 - Sequence 488813 from Patent EP1572962.
DQ595728 - Homo sapiens piRNA piR-61840, complete sequence.
JD505158 - Sequence 486182 from Patent EP1572962.
JD505159 - Sequence 486183 from Patent EP1572962.
AF031167 - Homo sapiens interleukin 15 precursor (IL-15) mRNA, complete cds.
JD244398 - Sequence 225422 from Patent EP1572962.
JD555016 - Sequence 536040 from Patent EP1572962.
S81555 - HTLV-I R-IL-15 fusion gene {junction region} [human, adult T-cell leukemia cell line HuT-102, mRNA Partial Mutant, 204 nt].
JD144293 - Sequence 125317 from Patent EP1572962.
BC100961 - Homo sapiens interleukin 15, mRNA (cDNA clone MGC:119223 IMAGE:40004735), complete cds.
BC100962 - Homo sapiens interleukin 15, mRNA (cDNA clone MGC:119224 IMAGE:40004736), complete cds.
BC100963 - Homo sapiens interleukin 15, mRNA (cDNA clone MGC:119225 IMAGE:40004738), complete cds.
JD449735 - Sequence 430759 from Patent EP1572962.
JD506451 - Sequence 487475 from Patent EP1572962.
X94222 - H.sapiens mRNA for interleukin-15 (cell line NCIH69).
X94223 - H.sapiens mRNA for interleukin-15 (cell line NCIH82).
AB528534 - Synthetic construct DNA, clone: pF1KB6819, Homo sapiens IL15 gene for interleukin 15, without stop codon, in Flexi system.
DQ890548 - Synthetic construct clone IMAGE:100003178; FLH165354.01X; RZPDo839B04160D interleukin 15 (IL15) gene, encodes complete protein.
DQ893709 - Synthetic construct Homo sapiens clone IMAGE:100008169; FLH263666.01L; RZPDo839B03159D interleukin 15 (IL15) gene, encodes complete protein.
DQ893710 - Synthetic construct Homo sapiens clone IMAGE:100008170; FLH165350.01L; RZPDo839B04159D interleukin 15 (IL15) gene, encodes complete protein.
KJ891469 - Synthetic construct Homo sapiens clone ccsbBroadEn_00863 IL15 gene, encodes complete protein.
JD053940 - Sequence 34964 from Patent EP1572962.
JD378810 - Sequence 359834 from Patent EP1572962.
Z38000 - H.sapiens mRNA for interleukin 15 (partial).
JD357764 - Sequence 338788 from Patent EP1572962.
JD288557 - Sequence 269581 from Patent EP1572962.
AY720442 - Homo sapiens interleukin-15 mRNA, complete cds.
JD250175 - Sequence 231199 from Patent EP1572962.
CR542007 - Homo sapiens full open reading frame cDNA clone RZPDo834E0235D for gene IL15, interleukin 15; complete cds, without stopcodon.
CR541980 - Homo sapiens full open reading frame cDNA clone RZPDo834B0235D for gene IL15, interleukin 15; complete cds, incl. stopcodon.
Y09908 - H.sapiens mRNA for interleukin-15.
JD218486 - Sequence 199510 from Patent EP1572962.

-  Biochemical and Signaling Pathways
  KEGG - Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes
hsa04060 - Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction
hsa04630 - Jak-STAT signaling pathway
hsa04672 - Intestinal immune network for IgA production

BioCarta from NCI Cancer Genome Anatomy Project
h_inflamPathway - Cytokines and Inflammatory Response
h_cytokinePathway - Cytokine Network

Reactome (by CSHL, EBI, and GO)

Protein P40933 (Reactome details) participates in the following event(s):

R-HSA-8983307 IL15 binds IL15RA
R-HSA-8983394 IL15:IL15RA:p-Y-IL2RB:p-Y-JAK1:p-Y-IL2RG:p-Y-JAK3:p-Y-SHC1 binds GRB2
R-HSA-8983432 Interleukin-15 signaling
R-HSA-451927 Interleukin-2 family signaling
R-HSA-449147 Signaling by Interleukins
R-HSA-1280215 Cytokine Signaling in Immune system
R-HSA-168256 Immune System

-  Other Names for This Gene
  Alternate Gene Symbols: AK122993, D3DNZ2, IL15_HUMAN, O00440, O43512, P40933, Q495Z8, Q93058, Q9UBA3, uc062zve.1
UCSC ID: uc062zve.1
RefSeq Accession: NM_172175
Protein: P40933 (aka IL15_HUMAN)
CCDS: CCDS3756.1

-  Methods, Credits, and Use Restrictions
  Click here for details on how this gene model was made and data restrictions if any.