Human Gene GNB2 (ENST00000427895.5) Description and Page Index
  Description: Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) are involved as a modulator or transducer in various transmembrane signaling systems. The beta and gamma chains are required for the GTPase activity, for replacement of GDP by GTP, and for G protein- effector interaction. (from UniProt P62879)
RefSeq Summary (NM_005273): Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins), which integrate signals between receptors and effector proteins, are composed of an alpha, a beta, and a gamma subunit. These subunits are encoded by families of related genes. This gene encodes a beta subunit. Beta subunits are important regulators of alpha subunits, as well as of certain signal transduction receptors and effectors. This gene contains a trinucleotide (CCG) repeat length polymorphism in its 5' UTR. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]. Publication Note: This RefSeq record includes a subset of the publications that are available for this gene. Please see the Gene record to access additional publications. ##Evidence-Data-START## Transcript exon combination :: BC012348.1, SRR1163655.99858.1 [ECO:0000332] RNAseq introns :: single sample supports all introns SAMEA1968540, SAMEA1970526 [ECO:0000348] ##Evidence-Data-END## ##RefSeq-Attributes-START## MANE Ensembl match :: ENST00000303210.9/ ENSP00000305260.4 RefSeq Select criteria :: based on single protein-coding transcript ##RefSeq-Attributes-END##
Gencode Transcript: ENST00000427895.5
Gencode Gene: ENSG00000172354.10
Transcript (Including UTRs)
   Position: hg38 chr7:100,673,878-100,679,145 Size: 5,268 Total Exon Count: 6 Strand: +
Coding Region
   Position: hg38 chr7:100,677,531-100,678,801 Size: 1,271 Coding Exon Count: 5 

Page IndexSequence and LinksUniProtKB CommentsCTDRNA-Seq ExpressionMicroarray Expression
RNA StructureProtein StructureOther SpeciesGO AnnotationsmRNA DescriptionsPathways
Other NamesMethods
Data last updated: 2019-09-04

-  Sequence and Links to Tools and Databases
Genomic Sequence (chr7:100,673,878-100,679,145)mRNA (may differ from genome)Protein (240 aa)
Gene SorterGenome BrowserOther Species FASTAGene interactionsTable SchemaBioGPS
MGIneXtProtPubMedReactomeStanford SOURCEUniProtKB

-  Comments and Description Text from UniProtKB
DESCRIPTION: RecName: Full=Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(T) subunit beta-2; AltName: Full=G protein subunit beta-2; AltName: Full=Transducin beta chain 2;
FUNCTION: Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) are involved as a modulator or transducer in various transmembrane signaling systems. The beta and gamma chains are required for the GTPase activity, for replacement of GDP by GTP, and for G protein- effector interaction.
SUBUNIT: G proteins are composed of 3 units, alpha, beta and gamma. Interacts with ARHGEF18 and RASD2. Interacts with ATXN10.
SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Cytoplasm, perinuclear region.
SIMILARITY: Belongs to the WD repeat G protein beta family.
SIMILARITY: Contains 7 WD repeats.

-  Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD)
  The following chemicals interact with this gene           more ... click here to view the complete list

-  RNA-Seq Expression Data from GTEx (53 Tissues, 570 Donors)
  Highest median expression: 211.74 RPKM in Whole Blood
Total median expression: 4329.09 RPKM

View in GTEx track of Genome Browser    View at GTEx portal     View GTEx Body Map

+  Microarray Expression Data
  Press "+" in the title bar above to open this section.

-  mRNA Secondary Structure of 3' and 5' UTRs
RegionFold EnergyBasesEnergy/Base
Display As
5' UTR -16.7079-0.211 Picture PostScript Text
3' UTR -164.30344-0.478 Picture PostScript Text

The RNAfold program from the Vienna RNA Package is used to perform the secondary structure predictions and folding calculations. The estimated folding energy is in kcal/mol. The more negative the energy, the more secondary structure the RNA is likely to have.

-  Protein Domain and Structure Information
  InterPro Domains: Graphical view of domain structure
IPR020472 - G-protein_beta_WD-40_rep
IPR001632 - Gprotein_B
IPR016346 - Guanine_nucleotide-bd_bsu
IPR015943 - WD40/YVTN_repeat-like_dom
IPR001680 - WD40_repeat
IPR019775 - WD40_repeat_CS
IPR017986 - WD40_repeat_dom

Pfam Domains:
PF00400 - WD domain, G-beta repeat

ModBase Predicted Comparative 3D Structure on P62879
The pictures above may be empty if there is no ModBase structure for the protein. The ModBase structure frequently covers just a fragment of the protein. You may be asked to log onto ModBase the first time you click on the pictures. It is simplest after logging in to just click on the picture again to get to the specific info on that model.

-  Orthologous Genes in Other Species
  Orthologies between human, mouse, and rat are computed by taking the best BLASTP hit, and filtering out non-syntenic hits. For more distant species reciprocal-best BLASTP hits are used. Note that the absence of an ortholog in the table below may reflect incomplete annotations in the other species rather than a true absence of the orthologous gene.
MouseRatZebrafishD. melanogasterC. elegansS. cerevisiae
Genome BrowserGenome BrowserNo orthologNo orthologNo orthologNo ortholog
Gene Details     
Gene Sorter     
Protein SequenceProtein Sequence    

-  Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations with Structured Vocabulary
  Molecular Function:
GO:0003924 GTPase activity
GO:0004871 signal transducer activity
GO:0005246 calcium channel regulator activity
GO:0005515 protein binding
GO:0044877 macromolecular complex binding
GO:0051020 GTPase binding

Biological Process:
GO:0006457 protein folding
GO:0007165 signal transduction
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway

Cellular Component:
GO:0005615 extracellular space
GO:0005737 cytoplasm
GO:0005765 lysosomal membrane
GO:0005829 cytosol
GO:0005886 plasma membrane
GO:0005925 focal adhesion
GO:0016020 membrane
GO:0031982 vesicle
GO:0032991 macromolecular complex
GO:0043209 myelin sheath
GO:0044297 cell body
GO:0048471 perinuclear region of cytoplasm
GO:0070062 extracellular exosome

-  Descriptions from all associated GenBank mRNAs
  LF384056 - JP 2014500723-A/191559: Polycomb-Associated Non-Coding RNAs.
MA619633 - JP 2018138019-A/191559: Polycomb-Associated Non-Coding RNAs.
BC012348 - Homo sapiens guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 2, mRNA (cDNA clone MGC:20143 IMAGE:4556119), complete cds.
GQ891436 - Homo sapiens clone HEL-S-157 epididymis secretory sperm binding protein mRNA, complete cds.
AF064853 - Homo sapiens map 7qter; 41.64cR from WI-8540 repeat region, complete sequence.
BC010073 - Homo sapiens guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 2, mRNA (cDNA clone MGC:19573 IMAGE:4300639), complete cds.
BC068003 - Homo sapiens guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 2, mRNA (cDNA clone MGC:70586 IMAGE:6055863), complete cds.
M16538 - Human signal-transducing guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory (G) protein beta subunit mRNA, complete cds.
AK291592 - Homo sapiens cDNA FLJ77321 complete cds, highly similar to Homo sapiens guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 2 (GNB2), mRNA.
LF359956 - JP 2014500723-A/167459: Polycomb-Associated Non-Coding RNAs.
MA595533 - JP 2018138019-A/167459: Polycomb-Associated Non-Coding RNAs.
M36429 - Human transducin beta-2 subunit mRNA, complete cds.
AB528576 - Synthetic construct DNA, clone: pF1KB4886, Homo sapiens GNB2 gene for guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 2, without stop codon, in Flexi system.
CU679597 - Synthetic construct Homo sapiens gateway clone IMAGE:100017047 5' read GNB2 mRNA.
HQ448251 - Synthetic construct Homo sapiens clone IMAGE:100071652; CCSB006885_04 guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 2 (GNB2) gene, encodes complete protein.
JF432644 - Synthetic construct Homo sapiens clone IMAGE:100073881 guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 2 (GNB2) gene, encodes complete protein.
KJ891261 - Synthetic construct Homo sapiens clone ccsbBroadEn_00655 GNB2 gene, encodes complete protein.
KJ896903 - Synthetic construct Homo sapiens clone ccsbBroadEn_06297 GNB2 gene, encodes complete protein.
AF501883 - Homo sapiens guanine nucleotide binding protein beta 2 (GNB2) mRNA, complete cds.
CR541729 - Homo sapiens full open reading frame cDNA clone RZPDo834A1129D for gene GNB2, guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 2; complete cds, incl. stopcodon.
AK056750 - Homo sapiens cDNA FLJ32188 fis, clone PLACE6002056, highly similar to Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(T) subunit beta 2.
JD024320 - Sequence 5344 from Patent EP1572962.
JD030657 - Sequence 11681 from Patent EP1572962.
LF359955 - JP 2014500723-A/167458: Polycomb-Associated Non-Coding RNAs.
MA595532 - JP 2018138019-A/167458: Polycomb-Associated Non-Coding RNAs.
LF206987 - JP 2014500723-A/14490: Polycomb-Associated Non-Coding RNAs.
MA442564 - JP 2018138019-A/14490: Polycomb-Associated Non-Coding RNAs.
LF359953 - JP 2014500723-A/167456: Polycomb-Associated Non-Coding RNAs.
MA595530 - JP 2018138019-A/167456: Polycomb-Associated Non-Coding RNAs.
LF359951 - JP 2014500723-A/167454: Polycomb-Associated Non-Coding RNAs.
MA595528 - JP 2018138019-A/167454: Polycomb-Associated Non-Coding RNAs.
LF359950 - JP 2014500723-A/167453: Polycomb-Associated Non-Coding RNAs.
MA595527 - JP 2018138019-A/167453: Polycomb-Associated Non-Coding RNAs.
JD425668 - Sequence 406692 from Patent EP1572962.
JD118845 - Sequence 99869 from Patent EP1572962.
JD455262 - Sequence 436286 from Patent EP1572962.
JD373329 - Sequence 354353 from Patent EP1572962.
JD399513 - Sequence 380537 from Patent EP1572962.
JD270297 - Sequence 251321 from Patent EP1572962.
JD024288 - Sequence 5312 from Patent EP1572962.
JD101205 - Sequence 82229 from Patent EP1572962.
JD029437 - Sequence 10461 from Patent EP1572962.
JD122224 - Sequence 103248 from Patent EP1572962.
LF359949 - JP 2014500723-A/167452: Polycomb-Associated Non-Coding RNAs.
MA595526 - JP 2018138019-A/167452: Polycomb-Associated Non-Coding RNAs.
JD082684 - Sequence 63708 from Patent EP1572962.
JD355014 - Sequence 336038 from Patent EP1572962.
JD469590 - Sequence 450614 from Patent EP1572962.
JD177117 - Sequence 158141 from Patent EP1572962.
JD210832 - Sequence 191856 from Patent EP1572962.
JD020606 - Sequence 1630 from Patent EP1572962.
JD023073 - Sequence 4097 from Patent EP1572962.
JD484780 - Sequence 465804 from Patent EP1572962.
JD131471 - Sequence 112495 from Patent EP1572962.
JD462293 - Sequence 443317 from Patent EP1572962.
JD035302 - Sequence 16326 from Patent EP1572962.

-  Biochemical and Signaling Pathways
  KEGG - Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes
hsa04062 - Chemokine signaling pathway

Reactome (by CSHL, EBI, and GO)

Protein P62879 (Reactome details) participates in the following event(s):

R-HSA-6814119 TRiC/CCT binds unfolded G-protein beta subunit
R-HSA-6814124 ATP binds G-protein beta associated TRiC/CCT
R-HSA-6814120 ATP hydrolysis promotes folding of G-protein beta by TRiC/CCT
R-HSA-825631 Glucagon:GCGR mediates GTP-GDP exchange
R-HSA-6814418 PDCL promotes formation of G-beta:G-gamma heterodimers
R-HSA-8850527 PDCL releases folded G-beta from TRiC/CCT
R-HSA-8850560 G-protein alpha releases G-protein heterotrimer from PDCL
R-HSA-400097 G-beta:G-gamma inhibits Adenylate cyclase
R-HSA-400037 Gi,Go Heterotrimeric G-protein complex dissociates
R-HSA-422320 Heterotrimeric G(s) complex dissociates
R-HSA-167433 G-protein beta-gamma subunits rebind the alpha-GDP subunit
R-HSA-392295 Gbeta:gamma recruits PI3K gamma
R-HSA-398040 Gbeta:gamma activation of PLC beta
R-HSA-750988 Inactive G alpha (z) reassociates with G beta:gamma
R-HSA-750993 Inactive G alpha (q) reassociates with G beta:gamma
R-HSA-751001 Inactive G alpha (i) reassociates with G beta:gamma
R-HSA-751013 Inactive G alpha (s) reassociates with G beta:gamma
R-HSA-751039 Inactive G alpha (12/13) reassociates with G beta:gamma
R-HSA-112271 The receptor:G-protein complex dissociates
R-HSA-392202 Dissociation of the P2Y purinoceptor 12:Gi complex
R-HSA-392874 Dissociation of the Prostacyclin receptor:Gs complex
R-HSA-397835 Dissociation of the PAR:Gq complex
R-HSA-397891 Dissociation of the PAR:G12/13 complex
R-HSA-418576 Dissociation of the P2Y purinoceptor 1:Gq complex
R-HSA-428752 Dissociation of the TP:Gq complex
R-HSA-428918 Dissociation of the TP:G13 complex
R-HSA-744886 The Ligand:GPCR:Gs complex dissociates
R-HSA-749452 The Ligand:GPCR:Gq complex dissociates
R-HSA-749454 The Ligand:GPCR:Gi complex dissociates
R-HSA-751019 The Ligand:GPCR:G12/13 complex dissociates
R-HSA-751024 The Ligand:GPCR:Gz complex dissociates
R-HSA-3965447 G-protein subunits dissociate from WNT:FZD complex
R-HSA-8982640 G-alpha(t):G-beta-gamma:Opsins complex dissociates to active G-alpha(t)
R-HSA-6814121 PDCL binds G-protein beta and TRiC/CCT
R-HSA-167429 The receptor:G-protein complex binds GTP
R-HSA-167419 The receptor:G-protein complex releases GDP
R-HSA-400092 Alpha-2A,alpha-2C Adrenergic Receptors activate Gi.Go heterotrimeric G proteins
R-HSA-381706 GLP-1R:GLP-1 activates G(s)
R-HSA-381612 Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Receptor (GLP1R) binds Glucagon-like peptide-1
R-HSA-432188 AVP:AVPR2 Complex binds inactive heterotrimeric G(s) complex
R-HSA-396996 Thrombin-activated PAR binds G-protein Gq
R-HSA-418581 Activated P2Y purinoceptor 1 binds G-protein Gq
R-HSA-428749 Activated TP receptor binds G-proten Gq
R-HSA-749448 Liganded Gq-activating GPCRs bind inactive heterotrimeric Gq
R-HSA-167408 The high affinity receptor complex binds to G-protein
R-HSA-392852 Activated prostacyclin receptor binds G-protein Gs
R-HSA-744887 Liganded Gs-activating GPCRs bind inactive heterotrimeric Gs
R-HSA-749446 Liganded Gz-activating GPCRs bind inactive heterotrimeric G-protein Gz
R-HSA-392187 Activated P2Y purinoceptor 12 binds G-protein Gi
R-HSA-749456 Liganded Gi-activating GPCRs bind inactive heterotrimeric G-protein Gi
R-HSA-500717 Activation of GRIK3 homomer
R-HSA-428909 Activated TP receptor binds G-protein G13
R-HSA-8982637 Opsins binds G alpha-t
R-HSA-3965444 WNT:FZD complex promotes G-protein nucleotide exchange
R-HSA-3965441 FZD recruits trimeric G-proteins
R-HSA-432195 AVP:AVPR2:heterotrimeric G(s) complex exchanges GDP for GTP
R-HSA-396941 Thrombin-activated PAR binds G-protein G12/13
R-HSA-751027 Liganded G12/13-activating GPCRs bind inactive heterotrimeric G-protein G12/13
R-HSA-114558 Gq activation by PAR
R-HSA-418579 Gq activation by P2Y purinoceptor 1
R-HSA-428750 Gq activation by TP receptor
R-HSA-379048 Liganded Gq/11-activating GPCRs act as GEFs for Gq/11
R-HSA-392870 Gs activation by prostacyclin receptor
R-HSA-379044 Liganded Gs-activating GPCR acts as a GEF for Gs
R-HSA-749453 Liganded Gz-activating GPCR acts as a GEF for Gz
R-HSA-392195 Gi activation by P2Y purinoceptor 12
R-HSA-380073 Liganded Gi-activating GPCR acts as a GEF for Gi
R-HSA-392300 G beta:gamma activated PI3Kgamma converts PIP2 to PIP3
R-HSA-398193 PLC beta-mediated PIP2 hydrolysis
R-HSA-428917 G13 activation by TP receptor
R-HSA-420883 Opsins act as GEFs for G alpha-t
R-HSA-1013020 Activation of GIRK/Kir3 Channels
R-HSA-114552 G12/13 activation by PAR
R-HSA-751029 Liganded G12/13-activating GPCR acts as a GEF for G12/13
R-HSA-6814122 Cooperation of PDCL (PhLP1) and TRiC/CCT in G-protein beta folding
R-HSA-390466 Chaperonin-mediated protein folding
R-HSA-163359 Glucagon signaling in metabolic regulation
R-HSA-400042 Adrenaline,noradrenaline inhibits insulin secretion
R-HSA-381676 Glucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP1) regulates insulin secretion
R-HSA-432040 Vasopressin regulates renal water homeostasis via Aquaporins
R-HSA-202040 G-protein activation
R-HSA-392451 G beta:gamma signalling through PI3Kgamma
R-HSA-418217 G beta:gamma signalling through PLC beta
R-HSA-4086398 Ca2+ pathway
R-HSA-418597 G alpha (z) signalling events
R-HSA-416476 G alpha (q) signalling events
R-HSA-418594 G alpha (i) signalling events
R-HSA-418555 G alpha (s) signalling events
R-HSA-416482 G alpha (12/13) signalling events
R-HSA-392170 ADP signalling through P2Y purinoceptor 12
R-HSA-392851 Prostacyclin signalling through prostacyclin receptor
R-HSA-456926 Thrombin signalling through proteinase activated receptors (PARs)
R-HSA-418592 ADP signalling through P2Y purinoceptor 1
R-HSA-428930 Thromboxane signalling through TP receptor
R-HSA-391251 Protein folding
R-HSA-163685 Energy Metabolism
R-HSA-420092 Glucagon-type ligand receptors
R-HSA-422356 Regulation of insulin secretion
R-HSA-445717 Aquaporin-mediated transport
R-HSA-500657 Presynaptic function of Kainate receptors
R-HSA-111885 Opioid Signalling
R-HSA-397795 G-protein beta:gamma signalling
R-HSA-3858494 Beta-catenin independent WNT signaling
R-HSA-388396 GPCR downstream signalling
R-HSA-392518 Signal amplification
R-HSA-418346 Platelet homeostasis
R-HSA-76002 Platelet activation, signaling and aggregation
R-HSA-392499 Metabolism of proteins
R-HSA-1430728 Metabolism
R-HSA-373080 Class B/2 (Secretin family receptors)
R-HSA-382551 Transport of small molecules
R-HSA-451326 Activation of kainate receptors upon glutamate binding
R-HSA-195721 Signaling by WNT
R-HSA-372790 Signaling by GPCR
R-HSA-109582 Hemostasis
R-HSA-997272 Inhibition of voltage gated Ca2+ channels via Gbeta/gamma subunits
R-HSA-1296041 Activation of G protein gated Potassium channels
R-HSA-500792 GPCR ligand binding
R-HSA-112314 Neurotransmitter receptors and postsynaptic signal transmission
R-HSA-162582 Signal Transduction
R-HSA-991365 Activation of GABAB receptors
R-HSA-1296059 G protein gated Potassium channels
R-HSA-112315 Transmission across Chemical Synapses
R-HSA-977444 GABA B receptor activation
R-HSA-1296065 Inwardly rectifying K+ channels
R-HSA-112316 Neuronal System
R-HSA-977443 GABA receptor activation
R-HSA-1296071 Potassium Channels

-  Other Names for This Gene
  Alternate Gene Symbols: AK291592, GBB2_HUMAN, P11016, P54312, P62879, uc064ggy.1
UCSC ID: uc064ggy.1
RefSeq Accession: NM_005273
Protein: P62879 (aka GBB2_HUMAN)

-  Methods, Credits, and Use Restrictions
  Click here for details on how this gene model was made and data restrictions if any.