Human Gene BAD (ENST00000394532.7) Description and Page Index
Description: Homo sapiens BCL2 associated agonist of cell death (BAD), transcript variant 1, mRNA. (from RefSeq NM_004322) RefSeq Summary (NM_004322): The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the BCL-2 family. BCL-2 family members are known to be regulators of programmed cell death. This protein positively regulates cell apoptosis by forming heterodimers with BCL-xL and BCL-2, and reversing their death repressor activity. Proapoptotic activity of this protein is regulated through its phosphorylation. Protein kinases AKT and MAP kinase, as well as protein phosphatase calcineurin were found to be involved in the regulation of this protein. Alternative splicing of this gene results in two transcript variants which encode the same isoform. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]. Gencode Transcript: ENST00000394532.7 Gencode Gene: ENSG00000002330.13 Transcript (Including UTRs) Position: hg38 chr11:64,269,830-64,284,639 Size: 14,810 Total Exon Count: 3 Strand: - Coding Region Position: hg38 chr11:64,270,209-64,284,368 Size: 14,160 Coding Exon Count: 3
ID:BAD_HUMAN DESCRIPTION: RecName: Full=Bcl2 antagonist of cell death; Short=BAD; AltName: Full=Bcl-2-binding component 6; AltName: Full=Bcl-2-like protein 8; Short=Bcl2-L-8; AltName: Full=Bcl-XL/Bcl-2-associated death promoter; FUNCTION: Promotes cell death. Successfully competes for the binding to Bcl-X(L), Bcl-2 and Bcl-W, thereby affecting the level of heterodimerization of these proteins with BAX. Can reverse the death repressor activity of Bcl-X(L), but not that of Bcl-2 (By similarity). Appears to act as a link between growth factor receptor signaling and the apoptotic pathways. SUBUNIT: Forms heterodimers with the anti-apoptotic proteins, Bcl- X(L), Bcl-2 and Bcl-W. Also binds protein S100A10 (By similarity). The Ser-75/Ser-99 phosphorylated form binds 14-3-3 proteins (By similarity). Interacts with AKT1 and PIM3. INTERACTION: P10415:BCL2; NbExp=5; IntAct=EBI-700771, EBI-77694; Q07817-1:BCL2L1; NbExp=6; IntAct=EBI-700771, EBI-287195; O60238:BNIP3L; NbExp=2; IntAct=EBI-700771, EBI-849893; SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Mitochondrion outer membrane. Cytoplasm. Note=Upon phosphorylation, locates to the cytoplasm. TISSUE SPECIFICITY: Expressed in a wide variety of tissues. DOMAIN: Intact BH3 motif is required by BIK, BID, BAK, BAD and BAX for their pro-apoptotic activity and for their interaction with anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family. PTM: Phosphorylated on one or more of Ser-75, Ser-99, Ser-118 and Ser-134 in response to survival stimuli, which blocks its pro- apoptotic activity. Phosphorylation on Ser-99 or Ser-75 promotes heterodimerization with 14-3-3 proteins. This interaction then facilitates the phosphorylation at Ser-118, a site within the BH3 motif, leading to the release of Bcl-X(L) and the promotion of cell survival. Ser-99 is the major site of AKT/PKB phosphorylation, Ser-118 the major site of protein kinase A (CAPK) phosphorylation. Phosphorylation at Ser-99 by PKB/AKT1 is almost completely blocked by the apoptotic C-terminus cleavage product of PKN2 generated by caspases-3 activity during apoptosis. PTM: Methylation at Arg-94 and Arg-96 by PRMT1 inhibits Akt- mediated phosphorylation at Ser-99. SIMILARITY: Belongs to the Bcl-2 family. SEQUENCE CAUTION: Sequence=AAB36516.1; Type=Frameshift; Positions=64, 91; WEB RESOURCE: Name=Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology; URL="http://atlasgeneticsoncology.org/Genes/BADID130ch11q13.html"; WEB RESOURCE: Name=Wikipedia; Note=Bcl 2-associated death promoter entry; URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bcl-2-associated_death_promoter";
The RNAfold program from the Vienna RNA Package is used to perform the secondary structure predictions and folding calculations. The estimated folding energy is in kcal/mol. The more negative the energy, the more secondary structure the RNA is likely to have.
ModBase Predicted Comparative 3D Structure on Q92934
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Orthologous Genes in Other Species
Orthologies between human, mouse, and rat are computed by taking the best BLASTP hit, and filtering out non-syntenic hits. For more distant species reciprocal-best BLASTP hits are used. Note that the absence of an ortholog in the table below may reflect incomplete annotations in the other species rather than a true absence of the orthologous gene.
Biological Process: GO:0001666 response to hypoxia GO:0001836 release of cytochrome c from mitochondria GO:0001844 protein insertion into mitochondrial membrane involved in apoptotic signaling pathway GO:0006007 glucose catabolic process GO:0006915 apoptotic process GO:0006919 activation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process GO:0007283 spermatogenesis GO:0008283 cell proliferation GO:0008625 extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway via death domain receptors GO:0008630 intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in response to DNA damage GO:0009725 response to hormone GO:0009749 response to glucose GO:0010033 response to organic substance GO:0010508 positive regulation of autophagy GO:0010918 positive regulation of mitochondrial membrane potential GO:0014070 response to organic cyclic compound GO:0019050 suppression by virus of host apoptotic process GO:0019221 cytokine-mediated signaling pathway GO:0021987 cerebral cortex development GO:0032024 positive regulation of insulin secretion GO:0032355 response to estradiol GO:0032570 response to progesterone GO:0033133 positive regulation of glucokinase activity GO:0033574 response to testosterone GO:0034201 response to oleic acid GO:0035774 positive regulation of insulin secretion involved in cellular response to glucose stimulus GO:0042493 response to drug GO:0042542 response to hydrogen peroxide GO:0042593 glucose homeostasis GO:0042981 regulation of apoptotic process GO:0043065 positive regulation of apoptotic process GO:0043200 response to amino acid GO:0043280 positive regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process GO:0043281 regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process GO:0044342 type B pancreatic cell proliferation GO:0045471 response to ethanol GO:0045579 positive regulation of B cell differentiation GO:0045582 positive regulation of T cell differentiation GO:0045862 positive regulation of proteolysis GO:0046031 ADP metabolic process GO:0046034 ATP metabolic process GO:0046902 regulation of mitochondrial membrane permeability GO:0046931 pore complex assembly GO:0050679 positive regulation of epithelial cell proliferation GO:0051384 response to glucocorticoid GO:0051592 response to calcium ion GO:0060139 positive regulation of apoptotic process by virus GO:0060154 cellular process regulating host cell cycle in response to virus GO:0071247 cellular response to chromate GO:0071260 cellular response to mechanical stimulus GO:0071316 cellular response to nicotine GO:0071396 cellular response to lipid GO:0071456 cellular response to hypoxia GO:0090200 positive regulation of release of cytochrome c from mitochondria GO:0097190 apoptotic signaling pathway GO:0097191 extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway GO:0097192 extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in absence of ligand GO:0097193 intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway GO:0097202 activation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity GO:1900740 positive regulation of protein insertion into mitochondrial membrane involved in apoptotic signaling pathway GO:1901216 positive regulation of neuron death GO:1902220 positive regulation of intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in response to osmotic stress GO:2000078 positive regulation of type B pancreatic cell development GO:2001244 positive regulation of intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway