Human Gene CDC16 (ENST00000360383.7) Description and Page Index
  Description: Component of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), a cell cycle-regulated E3 ubiquitin ligase that controls progression through mitosis and the G1 phase of the cell cycle. The APC/C complex acts by mediating ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of target proteins: it mainly mediates the formation of 'Lys-11'-linked polyubiquitin chains and, to a lower extent, the formation of 'Lys-48'- and 'Lys-63'-linked polyubiquitin chains. (from UniProt Q13042)
RefSeq Summary (NM_003903): The protein encoded by this gene functions as a protein ubiquitin ligase and is a component of the multiprotein APC complex. The APC complex is a cyclin degradation system that governs exit from mitosis by targeting cell cycle proteins for degredation by the 26S proteasome. Each component protein of the APC complex is highly conserved among eukaryotic organisms. This protein, and other APC complex proteins, contain a tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain; a protein domain that is often involved in protein-protein interactions and the assembly of multiprotein complexes. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants, encoding distinct proteins, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2016].
Gencode Transcript: ENST00000360383.7
Gencode Gene: ENSG00000130177.16
Transcript (Including UTRs)
   Position: hg38 chr13:114,234,887-114,272,675 Size: 37,789 Total Exon Count: 19 Strand: +
Coding Region
   Position: hg38 chr13:114,235,085-114,272,443 Size: 37,359 Coding Exon Count: 18 

Page IndexSequence and LinksUniProtKB CommentsCTDRNA-Seq ExpressionMicroarray Expression
RNA StructureProtein StructureOther SpeciesGO AnnotationsmRNA DescriptionsPathways
Other NamesMethods
Data last updated: 2019-09-04

-  Sequence and Links to Tools and Databases
Genomic Sequence (chr13:114,234,887-114,272,675)mRNA (may differ from genome)Protein (620 aa)
Gene SorterGenome BrowserOther Species FASTAGene interactionsTable SchemaBioGPS
Stanford SOURCEUniProtKBWikipedia

-  Comments and Description Text from UniProtKB
DESCRIPTION: RecName: Full=Cell division cycle protein 16 homolog; AltName: Full=Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 6; Short=APC6; AltName: Full=CDC16 homolog; Short=CDC16Hs; AltName: Full=Cyclosome subunit 6;
FUNCTION: Component of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), a cell cycle-regulated E3 ubiquitin ligase that controls progression through mitosis and the G1 phase of the cell cycle. The APC/C complex acts by mediating ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of target proteins: it mainly mediates the formation of 'Lys-11'-linked polyubiquitin chains and, to a lower extent, the formation of 'Lys-48'- and 'Lys-63'-linked polyubiquitin chains.
PATHWAY: Protein modification; protein ubiquitination.
SUBUNIT: The APC/C is composed of at least 12 subunits. Interacts with PPP5C and CDC20.
INTERACTION: Q8NHZ8:CDC26; NbExp=3; IntAct=EBI-994830, EBI-2555941;
SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton, centrosome. Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton, spindle. Note=Colocalizes with CDC27 to the centrosome at all stages of the cell cycle and to the mitotic spindle.
PTM: Phosphorylated. Phosphorylation on Ser-560 occurs specifically during mitosis.
SIMILARITY: Belongs to the APC6/CDC16 family.
SIMILARITY: Contains 7 TPR repeats.

-  Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD)
  The following chemicals interact with this gene           more ... click here to view the complete list

-  RNA-Seq Expression Data from GTEx (53 Tissues, 570 Donors)
  Highest median expression: 30.29 RPKM in Testis
Total median expression: 1057.21 RPKM

View in GTEx track of Genome Browser    View at GTEx portal     View GTEx Body Map

+  Microarray Expression Data
  Press "+" in the title bar above to open this section.

-  mRNA Secondary Structure of 3' and 5' UTRs
RegionFold EnergyBasesEnergy/Base
Display As
5' UTR -104.50198-0.528 Picture PostScript Text
3' UTR -35.40150-0.236 Picture PostScript Text

The RNAfold program from the Vienna RNA Package is used to perform the secondary structure predictions and folding calculations. The estimated folding energy is in kcal/mol. The more negative the energy, the more secondary structure the RNA is likely to have.

-  Protein Domain and Structure Information
  InterPro Domains: Graphical view of domain structure
IPR001440 - TPR-1
IPR013026 - TPR-contain_dom
IPR011990 - TPR-like_helical
IPR019734 - TPR_repeat

Pfam Domains:
PF00515 - Tetratricopeptide repeat
PF13181 - Tetratricopeptide repeat

Protein Data Bank (PDB) 3-D Structure
MuPIT help

- X-ray MuPIT

ModBase Predicted Comparative 3D Structure on Q13042
The pictures above may be empty if there is no ModBase structure for the protein. The ModBase structure frequently covers just a fragment of the protein. You may be asked to log onto ModBase the first time you click on the pictures. It is simplest after logging in to just click on the picture again to get to the specific info on that model.

-  Orthologous Genes in Other Species
  Orthologies between human, mouse, and rat are computed by taking the best BLASTP hit, and filtering out non-syntenic hits. For more distant species reciprocal-best BLASTP hits are used. Note that the absence of an ortholog in the table below may reflect incomplete annotations in the other species rather than a true absence of the orthologous gene.
MouseRatZebrafishD. melanogasterC. elegansS. cerevisiae
Genome BrowserGenome BrowserNo orthologNo orthologNo orthologNo ortholog
Gene Details     
Gene Sorter     
Protein SequenceProtein Sequence    

-  Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations with Structured Vocabulary
  Molecular Function:
GO:0005515 protein binding

Biological Process:
GO:0000278 mitotic cell cycle
GO:0007049 cell cycle
GO:0007088 regulation of mitotic nuclear division
GO:0008283 cell proliferation
GO:0016567 protein ubiquitination
GO:0031145 anaphase-promoting complex-dependent catabolic process
GO:0051301 cell division
GO:0070979 protein K11-linked ubiquitination

Cellular Component:
GO:0005634 nucleus
GO:0005654 nucleoplasm
GO:0005680 anaphase-promoting complex
GO:0005737 cytoplasm
GO:0005813 centrosome
GO:0005815 microtubule organizing center
GO:0005819 spindle
GO:0005829 cytosol
GO:0005856 cytoskeleton
GO:0005876 spindle microtubule

-  Descriptions from all associated GenBank mRNAs
  AK296424 - Homo sapiens cDNA FLJ56731 complete cds, highly similar to Cell division cycle protein 16 homolog.
BC017244 - Homo sapiens cell division cycle 16 homolog (S. cerevisiae), mRNA (cDNA clone MGC:29445 IMAGE:4877392), complete cds.
BC010875 - Homo sapiens cell division cycle 16 homolog (S. cerevisiae), mRNA (cDNA clone MGC:9971 IMAGE:3879150), complete cds.
JD211271 - Sequence 192295 from Patent EP1572962.
JD100826 - Sequence 81850 from Patent EP1572962.
AK315302 - Homo sapiens cDNA, FLJ96326, highly similar to Homo sapiens CDC16 cell division cycle 16 homolog (S. cerevisiae) (CDC16), mRNA.
JD196411 - Sequence 177435 from Patent EP1572962.
U18291 - Human CDC16Hs mRNA, complete cds.
AB590520 - Synthetic construct DNA, clone: pFN21AE2030, Homo sapiens CDC16 gene for cell division cycle 16 homolog, without stop codon, in Flexi system.
AF164598 - Homo sapiens cell division control protein 16 (CDC16) mRNA, complete cds.
CU677877 - Synthetic construct Homo sapiens gateway clone IMAGE:100023415 5' read CDC16 mRNA.
KJ897929 - Synthetic construct Homo sapiens clone ccsbBroadEn_07323 CDC16 gene, encodes complete protein.
AB209850 - Homo sapiens mRNA for CDC16 homolog protein.
HQ257896 - Synthetic construct Homo sapiens clone IMAGE:100072205 Unknown protein gene, encodes complete protein.
KJ901922 - Synthetic construct Homo sapiens clone ccsbBroadEn_11316 CDC16 gene, encodes complete protein.
BC050575 - Homo sapiens cDNA clone IMAGE:5735063, **** WARNING: chimeric clone ****.
AK095082 - Homo sapiens cDNA FLJ37763 fis, clone BRHIP2024398, highly similar to Human CDC16Hs mRNA.
JD053853 - Sequence 34877 from Patent EP1572962.

-  Biochemical and Signaling Pathways
  KEGG - Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes
hsa04110 - Cell cycle
hsa04114 - Oocyte meiosis
hsa04120 - Ubiquitin mediated proteolysis
hsa04914 - Progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation

Reactome (by CSHL, EBI, and GO)

Protein Q13042 (Reactome details) participates in the following event(s):

R-HSA-174119 Free APC/C phosphorylated by Plk1
R-HSA-174132 Free APC/C phosphorylated by Cyclin B:Cdc2
R-HSA-174139 Dissociation of phospho-Cdh1 from the APC/C complex
R-HSA-141423 Binding of the MCC complex to the APC/C complex
R-HSA-174070 Association of Cdh1 with the APC/C
R-HSA-174224 Dissociation of Cdc20 from APC/C complex
R-HSA-174057 Multiubiquitination of APC/C-associated Cdh1
R-HSA-188371 Association of Cyclin A:Cdk2 with Cdh1
R-HSA-3788708 CDKN1A (p21) prevents association of Cyclin A:Cdk2 with Cdh1
R-HSA-3788725 Cdh1:APC/C complex binds EHMT1:EHMT2
R-HSA-174171 Association of Cyclin A with the APC/C
R-HSA-174238 Activation of APC/C:Cdc20 by dissociation of Cdc20:phospho-APC/C from Cdc20:phospho-APC/C:Mad2:Bub3:BubR1
R-HSA-179410 Association of Nek2A with MCC:APC/C
R-HSA-174120 Association of Cyclin B:Cdc2 with Cdc20:APC/C complex
R-HSA-174121 Association of Securin with Cdc20:APC/C complex
R-HSA-174088 Association of cell cycle proteins with the APC/C:Cdh1 complex
R-HSA-983157 Interaction of E3 with substrate and E2-Ub complex
R-HSA-983147 Release of E3 from polyubiquitinated substrate
R-HSA-174079 Phosphorylation of Cdh1 by Cyclin A:Cdk2
R-HSA-3788705 CDKN1A (p21) prevents phosphorylation of Cdh1 by Cyclin A:Cdk2
R-HSA-3788724 Cdh1:APC/C ubiquitinates EHMT1 and EHMT2
R-HSA-174104 Ubiquitination of Cyclin A by APC/C:Cdc20 complex
R-HSA-179417 Multiubiquitination of Nek2A
R-HSA-174227 Ubiquitination of Cyclin B by phospho-APC/C:Cdc20 complex
R-HSA-174144 Ubiquitination of Securin by phospho-APC/C:Cdc20 complex
R-HSA-174195 Ubiquitination of cell cycle proteins targeted by the APC/C:Cdh1complex
R-HSA-69015 Cytoplasmic phosphorylated Cdc6 is ubiquitinated by the anaphase-promoting complex
R-HSA-983140 Transfer of Ub from E2 to substrate and release of E2
R-HSA-176412 Phosphorylation of the APC/C
R-HSA-174084 Autodegradation of Cdh1 by Cdh1:APC/C
R-HSA-176408 Regulation of APC/C activators between G1/S and early anaphase
R-HSA-141430 Inactivation of APC/C via direct inhibition of the APC/C complex
R-HSA-176407 Conversion from APC/C:Cdc20 to APC/C:Cdh1 in late anaphase
R-HSA-176814 Activation of APC/C and APC/C:Cdc20 mediated degradation of mitotic proteins
R-HSA-2559582 Senescence-Associated Secretory Phenotype (SASP)
R-HSA-174143 APC/C-mediated degradation of cell cycle proteins
R-HSA-174184 Cdc20:Phospho-APC/C mediated degradation of Cyclin A
R-HSA-176409 APC/C:Cdc20 mediated degradation of mitotic proteins
R-HSA-179409 APC-Cdc20 mediated degradation of Nek2A
R-HSA-174048 APC/C:Cdc20 mediated degradation of Cyclin B
R-HSA-174154 APC/C:Cdc20 mediated degradation of Securin
R-HSA-2467813 Separation of Sister Chromatids
R-HSA-174178 APC/C:Cdh1 mediated degradation of Cdc20 and other APC/C:Cdh1 targeted proteins in late mitosis/early G1
R-HSA-141405 Inhibition of the proteolytic activity of APC/C required for the onset of anaphase by mitotic spindle checkpoint components
R-HSA-983168 Antigen processing: Ubiquitination & Proteasome degradation
R-HSA-2559583 Cellular Senescence
R-HSA-453276 Regulation of mitotic cell cycle
R-HSA-179419 APC:Cdc20 mediated degradation of cell cycle proteins prior to satisfation of the cell cycle checkpoint
R-HSA-68882 Mitotic Anaphase
R-HSA-69017 CDK-mediated phosphorylation and removal of Cdc6
R-HSA-69618 Mitotic Spindle Checkpoint
R-HSA-983169 Class I MHC mediated antigen processing & presentation
R-HSA-2262752 Cellular responses to stress
R-HSA-69278 Cell Cycle (Mitotic)
R-HSA-2555396 Mitotic Metaphase and Anaphase
R-HSA-69052 Switching of origins to a post-replicative state
R-HSA-69620 Cell Cycle Checkpoints
R-HSA-1280218 Adaptive Immune System
R-HSA-8953897 Cellular responses to external stimuli
R-HSA-1640170 Cell Cycle
R-HSA-68886 M Phase
R-HSA-69239 Synthesis of DNA
R-HSA-168256 Immune System
R-HSA-69242 S Phase
R-HSA-69306 DNA Replication

-  Other Names for This Gene
  Alternate Gene Symbols: A2A365, ANAPC6, BC017244, CDC16_HUMAN, Q13042, Q5T8C8, Q96AE6, Q9Y564, uc001vuk.1
UCSC ID: uc001vuk.1
RefSeq Accession: NM_003903
Protein: Q13042 (aka CDC16_HUMAN or CC16_HUMAN)
CCDS: CCDS9542.2, CCDS81786.1

-  Methods, Credits, and Use Restrictions
  Click here for details on how this gene model was made and data restrictions if any.