Human Gene PRKN (ENST00000338468.7) Description and Page Index
  Description: Functions within a multiprotein E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, catalyzing the covalent attachment of ubiquitin moieties onto substrate proteins, such as BCL2, SYT11, CCNE1, GPR37, STUB1, a 22 kDa O-linked glycosylated isoform of SNCAIP, SEPT5, ZNF746 and AIMP2. Mediates monoubiquitination as well as 'Lys-48'-linked and 'Lys-63'-linked polyubiquitination of substrates depending on the context. Participates in the removal and/or detoxification of abnormally folded or damaged protein by mediating 'Lys-63'-linked polyubiquitination of misfolded proteins such as PARK7: 'Lys-63'- linked polyubiquitinated misfolded proteins are then recognized by HDAC6, leading to their recruitment to aggresomes, followed by degradation. Mediates 'Lys-63'-linked polyubiquitination of SNCAIP, possibly playing a role in Lewy-body formation. Mediates monoubiquitination of BCL2, thereby acting as a positive regulator of autophagy. Promotes the autophagic degradation of dysfunctional depolarized mitochondria. Mediates 'Lys-48'-linked polyubiquitination of ZNF746, followed by degradation of ZNF746 by the proteasome; possibly playing a role in role in regulation of neuron death. Limits the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Loss of this ubiquitin ligase activity appears to be the mechanism underlying pathogenesis of PARK2. May protect neurons against alpha synuclein toxicity, proteasomal dysfunction, GPR37 accumulation, and kainate-induced excitotoxicity. May play a role in controlling neurotransmitter trafficking at the presynaptic terminal and in calcium-dependent exocytosis. Regulates cyclin-E during neuronal apoptosis. May represent a tumor suppressor gene. (from UniProt O60260)
RefSeq Summary (NM_004562): The precise function of this gene is unknown; however, the encoded protein is a component of a multiprotein E3 ubiquitin ligase complex that mediates the targeting of substrate proteins for proteasomal degradation. Mutations in this gene are known to cause Parkinson disease and autosomal recessive juvenile Parkinson disease. Alternative splicing of this gene produces multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. Additional splice variants of this gene have been described but currently lack transcript support. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008].
Gencode Transcript: ENST00000338468.7
Gencode Gene: ENSG00000185345.21
Transcript (Including UTRs)
   Position: hg38 chr6:161,350,099-162,727,668 Size: 1,377,570 Total Exon Count: 11 Strand: -
Coding Region
   Position: hg38 chr6:161,350,099-162,054,135 Size: 704,037 Coding Exon Count: 8 

Page IndexSequence and LinksUniProtKB CommentsMalaCardsRNA-Seq ExpressionMicroarray Expression
RNA StructureProtein StructureOther SpeciesGO AnnotationsmRNA DescriptionsPathways
Other NamesGeneReviewsMethods
Data last updated: 2019-09-04

-  Sequence and Links to Tools and Databases
 
Genomic Sequence (chr6:161,350,099-162,727,668)mRNA (may differ from genome)Protein (274 aa)
Gene SorterGenome BrowserOther Species FASTATable SchemaBioGPSCGAP
EnsemblExonPrimerGeneCardsLynxMGIneXtProt
PubMedReactomeStanford SOURCEUniProtKBWikipedia

-  Comments and Description Text from UniProtKB
  ID: PRKN2_HUMAN
DESCRIPTION: RecName: Full=E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase parkin; EC=6.3.2.-; AltName: Full=Parkinson juvenile disease protein 2; Short=Parkinson disease protein 2;
FUNCTION: Functions within a multiprotein E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, catalyzing the covalent attachment of ubiquitin moieties onto substrate proteins, such as BCL2, SYT11, CCNE1, GPR37, STUB1, a 22 kDa O-linked glycosylated isoform of SNCAIP, SEPT5, ZNF746 and AIMP2. Mediates monoubiquitination as well as 'Lys-48'-linked and 'Lys-63'-linked polyubiquitination of substrates depending on the context. Participates in the removal and/or detoxification of abnormally folded or damaged protein by mediating 'Lys-63'-linked polyubiquitination of misfolded proteins such as PARK7: 'Lys-63'- linked polyubiquitinated misfolded proteins are then recognized by HDAC6, leading to their recruitment to aggresomes, followed by degradation. Mediates 'Lys-63'-linked polyubiquitination of SNCAIP, possibly playing a role in Lewy-body formation. Mediates monoubiquitination of BCL2, thereby acting as a positive regulator of autophagy. Promotes the autophagic degradation of dysfunctional depolarized mitochondria. Mediates 'Lys-48'-linked polyubiquitination of ZNF746, followed by degradation of ZNF746 by the proteasome; possibly playing a role in role in regulation of neuron death. Limits the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Loss of this ubiquitin ligase activity appears to be the mechanism underlying pathogenesis of PARK2. May protect neurons against alpha synuclein toxicity, proteasomal dysfunction, GPR37 accumulation, and kainate-induced excitotoxicity. May play a role in controlling neurotransmitter trafficking at the presynaptic terminal and in calcium-dependent exocytosis. Regulates cyclin-E during neuronal apoptosis. May represent a tumor suppressor gene.
PATHWAY: Protein modification; protein ubiquitination.
SUBUNIT: Forms an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex with UBE2L3 or UBE2L6. Mediates 'Lys-63'-linked polyubiquitination by associating with UBE2V1. Part of a SCF-like complex, consisting of PARK2, CUL1 and FBXW7. Interacts with SNCAIP. Binds to the C2A and C2B domains of SYT11. Interacts and regulates the turnover of SEPT5. Part of a complex, including STUB1, HSP70 and GPR37. The amount of STUB1 in the complex increases during ER stress. STUB1 promotes the dissociation of HSP70 from PARK2 and GPR37, thus facilitating PARK2-mediated GPR37 ubiquitination. HSP70 transiently associates with unfolded GPR37 and inhibits the E3 activity of PARK2, whereas, STUB1 enhances the E3 activity of PARK2 through promotion of dissociation of HSP70 from PARK2-GPR37 complexes. Interacts with PSMD4 and PACRG. Interacts with LRRK2. Interacts with RANBP2. Interacts with SUMO1 but not SUMO2, which promotes nuclear localization and autoubiquitination. Interacts (via first RING- type domain) with AIMP2 (via N-terminus). Interacts with PSMA7 and RNF41. Interacts with PINK1.
INTERACTION: Q5S007:LRRK2; NbExp=3; IntAct=EBI-716346, EBI-5323863; P49792:RANBP2; NbExp=11; IntAct=EBI-716346, EBI-973138; Q8IXI2:RHOT1; NbExp=3; IntAct=EBI-716346, EBI-1396430; Q9Z2Q6:Sept5 (xeno); NbExp=2; IntAct=EBI-716346, EBI-772125; Q15645:TRIP13; NbExp=3; IntAct=EBI-716346, EBI-358993; Q6NUN9:ZNF746; NbExp=6; IntAct=EBI-716346, EBI-3862525;
SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Cytoplasm, cytosol. Nucleus. Endoplasmic reticulum. Mitochondrion. Note=Mainly localizes in the cytosol. Co-localizes with SYT11 in neutrites. Co-localizes with SNCAIP in brainstem Lewy bodies. Relocates to dysfunctional mitochondria that have lost the mitochondrial membrane potential; recruitment to mitochondria is PINK1-dependent.
TISSUE SPECIFICITY: Highly expressed in the brain including the substantia nigra. Expressed in heart, testis and skeletal muscle. Expression is down-regulated or absent in tumor biopsies, and absent in the brain of PARK2 patients. Overexpression protects dopamine neurons from kainate-mediated apoptosis. Found in serum (at protein level).
DOMAIN: The ubiquitin-like domain binds the PSMD4 subunit of 26S proteasomes.
PTM: Auto-ubiquitinates in an E2-dependent manner leading to its own degradation. Also polyubiquitinated by RNF41 for proteasomal degradation.
PTM: S-nitrosylated. The inhibition of PARK2 ubiquitin E3 ligase activity by S-nitrosylation could contribute to the degenerative process in PD by impairing the ubiquitination of PARK2 substrates.
DISEASE: Defects in PARK2 are a cause of Parkinson disease (PARK) [MIM:168600]. A complex neurodegenerative disorder characterized by bradykinesia, resting tremor, muscular rigidity and postural instability. Additional features are characteristic postural abnormalities, dysautonomia, dystonic cramps, and dementia. The pathology of Parkinson disease involves the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and the presence of Lewy bodies (intraneuronal accumulations of aggregated proteins), in surviving neurons in various areas of the brain. The disease is progressive and usually manifests after the age of 50 years, although early- onset cases (before 50 years) are known. The majority of the cases are sporadic suggesting a multifactorial etiology based on environmental and genetic factors. However, some patients present with a positive family history for the disease. Familial forms of the disease usually begin at earlier ages and are associated with atypical clinical features.
DISEASE: Defects in PARK2 are the cause of Parkinson disease type 2 (PARK2) [MIM:600116]; also known as early-onset parkinsonism with diurnal fluctuation (EPDF) or autosomal recessive juvenile Parkinson disease (PDJ). A neurodegenerative disorder characterized by bradykinesia, rigidity, postural instability, tremor, and onset usually befor 40. It differs from classic Parkinson disease by early DOPA-induced dyskinesia, diurnal fluctuation of the symptoms, sleep benefit, dystonia and hyper- reflexia. Dementia is absent. Pathologically, patients show loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, similar to that seen in Parkinson disease; however, Lewy bodies (intraneuronal accumulations of aggregated proteins) are absent.
DISEASE: Note=Defects in PARK2 may be involved in the development and/or progression of ovarian cancer.
MISCELLANEOUS: The parkin locus (PRKN), adjacent to the 6q telomere is hyper-recombinable and lies within FRA6E, the third most common fragile site in tumor tissue.
MISCELLANEOUS: Members of the RBR family are atypical E3 ligases. They interact with the E2 conjugating enzyme UBE2L3 and function like HECT-type E3 enzymes: they bind E2s via the first RING domain, but require an obligate trans-thiolation step during the ubiquitin transfer, requiring a conserved cysteine residue in the second RING domain (PubMed:21532592).
SIMILARITY: Belongs to the RBR family. Parkin subfamily.
SIMILARITY: Contains 1 IBR-type zinc finger.
SIMILARITY: Contains 2 RING-type zinc fingers.
SIMILARITY: Contains 1 ubiquitin-like domain.
WEB RESOURCE: Name=GeneReviews; URL="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/GeneTests/lab/gene/PARK2";
WEB RESOURCE: Name=Protein Spotlight; Note=Life's tremors - Issue 131 of September 2011; URL="http://www.expasy.org/spotlight/back_issues/sptlt131.shtml";

-  MalaCards Disease Associations
  MalaCards Gene Search: PRKN
Diseases sorted by gene-association score: parkinson disease, juvenile, type 2* (1550), ovarian cancer, somatic* (521), lung cancer* (408), leprosy* (406), lung cancer susceptibility 3* (284), parkinson disease, late-onset* (106), parkin type of early-onset parkinson disease* (100), synucleinopathy (19), early-onset parkinson disease (14), paratyphoid fever (12), tremor (10), movement disease (10), essential tremor (10), bell's palsy (9), dysautonomia (9), classic rett syndrome (9), multiple system atrophy (9), parkinson disease 10 (9), supranuclear palsy, progressive (8), dementia, lewy body (8), snca-related parkinson disease (8), autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2h (7), muscular dystrophy, congenital, megaconial type (7), epilepsy, progressive myoclonic 2b (6), hypersomnia (6), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-parkinsonism/dementia complex (6), parkinson disease 15, autosomal recessive (5), dementia (5), dystonia (4), angelman syndrome (2), motor neuron disease (2), dementia, frontotemporal (2), nervous system disease (1), central nervous system disease (1)
* = Manually curated disease association

-  RNA-Seq Expression Data from GTEx (53 Tissues, 570 Donors)
  Highest median expression: 4.26 RPKM in Muscle - Skeletal
Total median expression: 83.57 RPKM



View in GTEx track of Genome Browser    View at GTEx portal     View GTEx Body Map

+  Microarray Expression Data
  Press "+" in the title bar above to open this section.

-  mRNA Secondary Structure of 3' and 5' UTRs
 
RegionFold EnergyBasesEnergy/Base
Display As
5' UTR -167.40451-0.371 Picture PostScript Text

The RNAfold program from the Vienna RNA Package is used to perform the secondary structure predictions and folding calculations. The estimated folding energy is in kcal/mol. The more negative the energy, the more secondary structure the RNA is likely to have.

-  Protein Domain and Structure Information
  InterPro Domains: Graphical view of domain structure
IPR003977 - Parkin
IPR000626 - Ubiquitin
IPR019955 - Ubiquitin_supergroup
IPR002867 - Znf_C6HC

Pfam Domains:
PF01485 - IBR domain, a half RING-finger domain
PF00240 - Ubiquitin family

Protein Data Bank (PDB) 3-D Structure
MuPIT help

1IYF
- NMR MuPIT

2JMO
- NMR MuPIT


ModBase Predicted Comparative 3D Structure on O60260
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The pictures above may be empty if there is no ModBase structure for the protein. The ModBase structure frequently covers just a fragment of the protein. You may be asked to log onto ModBase the first time you click on the pictures. It is simplest after logging in to just click on the picture again to get to the specific info on that model.

-  Orthologous Genes in Other Species
  Orthologies between human, mouse, and rat are computed by taking the best BLASTP hit, and filtering out non-syntenic hits. For more distant species reciprocal-best BLASTP hits are used. Note that the absence of an ortholog in the table below may reflect incomplete annotations in the other species rather than a true absence of the orthologous gene.
MouseRatZebrafishD. melanogasterC. elegansS. cerevisiae
Genome BrowserGenome BrowserNo orthologNo orthologNo orthologNo ortholog
Gene Details     
Gene Sorter     
MGI     
Protein SequenceProtein Sequence    
AlignmentAlignment    

-  Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations with Structured Vocabulary
  Molecular Function:
GO:0000976 transcription regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding
GO:0001664 G-protein coupled receptor binding
GO:0003700 transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding
GO:0003779 actin binding
GO:0004842 ubiquitin-protein transferase activity
GO:0005515 protein binding
GO:0008013 beta-catenin binding
GO:0008270 zinc ion binding
GO:0015631 tubulin binding
GO:0016740 transferase activity
GO:0017124 SH3 domain binding
GO:0019899 enzyme binding
GO:0019900 kinase binding
GO:0019901 protein kinase binding
GO:0030165 PDZ domain binding
GO:0030544 Hsp70 protein binding
GO:0031072 heat shock protein binding
GO:0031624 ubiquitin conjugating enzyme binding
GO:0031625 ubiquitin protein ligase binding
GO:0042802 identical protein binding
GO:0042826 histone deacetylase binding
GO:0043130 ubiquitin binding
GO:0043274 phospholipase binding
GO:0046872 metal ion binding
GO:0051087 chaperone binding
GO:0061630 ubiquitin protein ligase activity
GO:0097602 cullin family protein binding
GO:1990381 ubiquitin-specific protease binding
GO:1990444 F-box domain binding

Biological Process:
GO:0000122 negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter
GO:0000209 protein polyubiquitination
GO:0000266 mitochondrial fission
GO:0000422 mitophagy
GO:0000423 macromitophagy
GO:0001933 negative regulation of protein phosphorylation
GO:0001963 synaptic transmission, dopaminergic
GO:0001964 startle response
GO:0006351 transcription, DNA-templated
GO:0006355 regulation of transcription, DNA-templated
GO:0006511 ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process
GO:0006513 protein monoubiquitination
GO:0006914 autophagy
GO:0006979 response to oxidative stress
GO:0007005 mitochondrion organization
GO:0007417 central nervous system development
GO:0007612 learning
GO:0007626 locomotory behavior
GO:0008344 adult locomotory behavior
GO:0010498 proteasomal protein catabolic process
GO:0010506 regulation of autophagy
GO:0010628 positive regulation of gene expression
GO:0010629 negative regulation of gene expression
GO:0010636 positive regulation of mitochondrial fusion
GO:0010637 negative regulation of mitochondrial fusion
GO:0010821 regulation of mitochondrion organization
GO:0010906 regulation of glucose metabolic process
GO:0010994 free ubiquitin chain polymerization
GO:0014059 regulation of dopamine secretion
GO:0016236 macroautophagy
GO:0016567 protein ubiquitination
GO:0016579 protein deubiquitination
GO:0019538 protein metabolic process
GO:0031396 regulation of protein ubiquitination
GO:0031647 regulation of protein stability
GO:0031648 protein destabilization
GO:0032092 positive regulation of protein binding
GO:0032232 negative regulation of actin filament bundle assembly
GO:0032368 regulation of lipid transport
GO:0032436 positive regulation of proteasomal ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process
GO:0033132 negative regulation of glucokinase activity
GO:0034620 cellular response to unfolded protein
GO:0034976 response to endoplasmic reticulum stress
GO:0035249 synaptic transmission, glutamatergic
GO:0035519 protein K29-linked ubiquitination
GO:0036503 ERAD pathway
GO:0042053 regulation of dopamine metabolic process
GO:0042415 norepinephrine metabolic process
GO:0042417 dopamine metabolic process
GO:0043123 positive regulation of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling
GO:0043161 proteasome-mediated ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process
GO:0043388 positive regulation of DNA binding
GO:0043524 negative regulation of neuron apoptotic process
GO:0044257 cellular protein catabolic process
GO:0044267 cellular protein metabolic process
GO:0044314 protein K27-linked ubiquitination
GO:0044828 negative regulation by host of viral genome replication
GO:0045732 positive regulation of protein catabolic process
GO:0045944 positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter
GO:0046329 negative regulation of JNK cascade
GO:0046676 negative regulation of insulin secretion
GO:0046928 regulation of neurotransmitter secretion
GO:0050804 modulation of synaptic transmission
GO:0050821 protein stabilization
GO:0051582 positive regulation of neurotransmitter uptake
GO:0051583 dopamine uptake involved in synaptic transmission
GO:0051865 protein autoubiquitination
GO:0051881 regulation of mitochondrial membrane potential
GO:0055069 zinc ion homeostasis
GO:0060548 negative regulation of cell death
GO:0060828 regulation of canonical Wnt signaling pathway
GO:0061734 parkin-mediated mitophagy in response to mitochondrial depolarization
GO:0070050 neuron cellular homeostasis
GO:0070534 protein K63-linked ubiquitination
GO:0070585 protein localization to mitochondrion
GO:0070842 aggresome assembly
GO:0070936 protein K48-linked ubiquitination
GO:0070979 protein K11-linked ubiquitination
GO:0071287 cellular response to manganese ion
GO:0085020 protein K6-linked ubiquitination
GO:0090090 negative regulation of canonical Wnt signaling pathway
GO:0090141 positive regulation of mitochondrial fission
GO:0090201 negative regulation of release of cytochrome c from mitochondria
GO:0097237 cellular response to toxic substance
GO:0098779 mitophagy in response to mitochondrial depolarization
GO:0099074 mitochondrion to lysosome transport
GO:1900407 regulation of cellular response to oxidative stress
GO:1901215 negative regulation of neuron death
GO:1901800 positive regulation of proteasomal protein catabolic process
GO:1902236 negative regulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway
GO:1902254 negative regulation of intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway by p53 class mediator
GO:1902283 negative regulation of primary amine oxidase activity
GO:1902530 positive regulation of protein linear polyubiquitination
GO:1902803 regulation of synaptic vesicle transport
GO:1903202 negative regulation of oxidative stress-induced cell death
GO:1903214 regulation of protein targeting to mitochondrion
GO:1903265 positive regulation of tumor necrosis factor-mediated signaling pathway
GO:1903351 cellular response to dopamine
GO:1903377 negative regulation of oxidative stress-induced neuron intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway
GO:1903382 negative regulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced neuron intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway
GO:1903542 negative regulation of exosomal secretion
GO:1903599 positive regulation of mitophagy
GO:1903861 positive regulation of dendrite extension
GO:1904049 negative regulation of spontaneous neurotransmitter secretion
GO:1905281 positive regulation of retrograde transport, endosome to Golgi
GO:1905366 negative regulation of intralumenal vesicle formation
GO:1905477 positive regulation of protein localization to membrane
GO:2000377 regulation of reactive oxygen species metabolic process
GO:2000378 negative regulation of reactive oxygen species metabolic process

Cellular Component:
GO:0000151 ubiquitin ligase complex
GO:0005634 nucleus
GO:0005737 cytoplasm
GO:0005739 mitochondrion
GO:0005783 endoplasmic reticulum
GO:0005794 Golgi apparatus
GO:0005829 cytosol
GO:0016235 aggresome
GO:0016607 nuclear speck
GO:0032991 macromolecular complex
GO:0043005 neuron projection
GO:0048471 perinuclear region of cytoplasm
GO:0097413 Lewy body
GO:0098793 presynapse
GO:1990452 Parkin-FBXW7-Cul1 ubiquitin ligase complex
GO:0071797 LUBAC complex
GO:0099073 mitochondrion-derived vesicle
GO:0019005 SCF ubiquitin ligase complex


-  Descriptions from all associated GenBank mRNAs
  JA482182 - Sequence 165 from Patent WO2011072091.
JA482183 - Sequence 166 from Patent WO2011072091.
JA482184 - Sequence 167 from Patent WO2011072091.
JE980474 - Sequence 165 from Patent EP2862929.
JE980475 - Sequence 166 from Patent EP2862929.
JE980476 - Sequence 167 from Patent EP2862929.
AB009973 - Homo sapiens parkin mRNA for Parkin, complete cds.
AK294684 - Homo sapiens cDNA FLJ59199 complete cds, highly similar to Parkin (EC 6.3.2.-).
AB245403 - Homo sapiens mRNA for parkin 2, complete cds.
AK292590 - Homo sapiens cDNA FLJ75810 complete cds, highly similar to Homo sapiens Parkinson disease (autosomal recessive, juvenile) 2, parkin (PARK2), transcript variant 1, mRNA.
GU357501 - Homo sapiens nonfunctional truncated parkin variant SV2-4DEL (PARK2) mRNA, complete sequence, alternatively spliced.
GU345839 - Homo sapiens parkin variant SV5DEL (PARK2) mRNA, complete cds, alternatively spliced.
GU345840 - Homo sapiens parkin variant SV9DEL (PARK2) mRNA, complete cds, alternatively spliced.
GU361466 - Homo sapiens truncated parkin variant SV4,8DEL (PARK2) mRNA, complete cds, alternatively spliced.
GU361467 - Homo sapiens parkin variant SV5,9DEL (PARK2) mRNA, complete cds, alternatively spliced.
GU361468 - Homo sapiens truncated parkin variant SV3,8,9DEL (PARK2) mRNA, complete cds, alternatively spliced.
GU361470 - Homo sapiens nonfunctional truncated parkin variant SV1cINS (PARK2) mRNA, complete sequence, alternatively spliced.
GU361471 - Homo sapiens nonfunctional truncated parkin variant SV1cINS2-8DEL (PARK2) mRNA, complete sequence, alternatively spliced.
GU357502 - Homo sapiens nonfunctional truncated parkin variant SV2-4,8DEL (PARK2) mRNA, complete sequence, alternatively spliced.
GU345837 - Homo sapiens nonfunctional parkin variant SV2DEL (PARK2) mRNA, complete sequence; alternatively spliced.
GU345838 - Homo sapiens truncated parkin variant SV4DEL (PARK2) mRNA, complete cds, alternatively spliced.
GU361469 - Homo sapiens truncated parkin variant SV1bINS (PARK2) mRNA, complete cds, alternatively spliced.
KC357595 - Homo sapiens clone PP24 PARK2 splice variant (PARK2) mRNA, complete cds, alternatively spliced.
KC774171 - Homo sapiens clone PP32 E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase parkin isoform (PARK2) mRNA, complete cds, alternatively spliced.
AF381286 - Homo sapiens parkin isoform mRNA, complete cds, alternatively spliced.
AF381283 - Homo sapiens parkin isoform mRNA, complete cds, alternatively spliced.
AF381282 - Homo sapiens parkin isoform mRNA, complete cds, alternatively spliced.
AF381284 - Homo sapiens parkin isoform mRNA, complete cds, alternatively spliced.
EF375726 - Homo sapiens parkin 2 (PARK2) mRNA, complete cds.
AB527958 - Synthetic construct DNA, clone: pF1KB0407, Homo sapiens PARK2 gene for Parkinson disease (autosomal recessive, juvenile) 2, parkin, without stop codon, in Flexi system.
KJ534911 - Homo sapiens clone PARK2_iso-A_adult-A14 parkinson protein 2 isoform A (PARK2) mRNA, partial cds, alternatively spliced.
KJ534912 - Homo sapiens clone PARK2_iso-A_fetal-F14 parkinson protein 2 isoform A (PARK2) mRNA, partial cds, alternatively spliced.
BC022014 - Homo sapiens Parkinson disease (autosomal recessive, juvenile) 2, parkin, mRNA (cDNA clone MGC:26491 IMAGE:4824892), complete cds.
HQ447316 - Synthetic construct Homo sapiens clone IMAGE:100070632; CCSB001392_02 Parkinson disease (autosomal recessive, juvenile) 2, parkin (PARK2) gene, encodes complete protein.
KJ901621 - Synthetic construct Homo sapiens clone ccsbBroadEn_11015 PARK2 gene, encodes complete protein.
KR709488 - Synthetic construct Homo sapiens clone CCSBHm_00002623 PARK2 (PARK2) mRNA, encodes complete protein.
KR709489 - Synthetic construct Homo sapiens clone CCSBHm_00002644 PARK2 (PARK2) mRNA, encodes complete protein.
KU178240 - Homo sapiens parkinson protein 2 E3 ubiquitin protein ligase isoform 1 (PARK2) mRNA, partial cds, alternatively spliced.
KU178241 - Homo sapiens parkinson protein 2 E3 ubiquitin protein ligase isoform 2 (PARK2) mRNA, partial cds, alternatively spliced.
KU178242 - Homo sapiens parkinson protein 2 E3 ubiquitin protein ligase isoform 3 (PARK2) mRNA, partial cds, alternatively spliced.
CU692452 - Synthetic construct Homo sapiens gateway clone IMAGE:100019194 5' read PARK2 mRNA.
KC357594 - Homo sapiens clone PP47/PP50 PARK2 splice variant (PARK2) mRNA, complete cds, alternatively spliced.

-  Biochemical and Signaling Pathways
  KEGG - Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes
hsa04120 - Ubiquitin mediated proteolysis
hsa05012 - Parkinson's disease

Reactome (by CSHL, EBI, and GO)

Protein O60260 (Reactome details) participates in the following event(s):

R-HSA-5205652 Pink1 recruits Parkin to the outer mitochondrial membrane.
R-HSA-5658574 PARK2 binds SNCAIP
R-HSA-5689111 PARK2 autoubiquitinates
R-HSA-5689085 ATXN3 binds polyUb-PARK2
R-HSA-5688837 ATXN3 deubiquitinates polyUb-PARK2
R-HSA-983157 Interaction of E3 with substrate and E2-Ub complex
R-HSA-983147 Release of E3 from polyubiquitinated substrate
R-HSA-5205682 Parkin promotes the ubiquitination of mitochondrial substrates
R-HSA-983140 Transfer of Ub from E2 to substrate and release of E2
R-HSA-5205685 Pink/Parkin Mediated Mitophagy
R-HSA-977225 Amyloid fiber formation
R-HSA-5689877 Josephin domain DUBs
R-HSA-983168 Antigen processing: Ubiquitination & Proteasome degradation
R-HSA-5205647 Mitophagy
R-HSA-392499 Metabolism of proteins
R-HSA-5688426 Deubiquitination
R-HSA-983169 Class I MHC mediated antigen processing & presentation
R-HSA-597592 Post-translational protein modification
R-HSA-1280218 Adaptive Immune System
R-HSA-168256 Immune System

-  Other Names for This Gene
  Alternate Gene Symbols: A3FG77, A8K975, GU345838, O60260, PARK2, PRKN2_HUMAN, Q5TFV8, Q6Q2I6, Q8NI41, Q8NI43, Q8NI44, Q8WW07, uc021zhw.1, uc021zhw.2
UCSC ID: uc021zhw.2
RefSeq Accession: NM_004562
Protein: O60260 (aka PRKN2_HUMAN or PRKN_HUMAN)

-  GeneReviews for This Gene
  GeneReviews article(s) related to gene PRKN:
dystonia-ov (Hereditary Dystonia Overview)
jpd (Parkin Type of Early-Onset Parkinson Disease)
parkinson-overview (Parkinson Disease Overview)

-  Methods, Credits, and Use Restrictions
  Click here for details on how this gene model was made and data restrictions if any.